Understanding Testosterone

Written by Ben Bunting: BA, PGCert. (Sport & Exercise Nutrition) // British Army Physical Training Instructor // S&C Coach.


Testosterone is a male hormone that the National Institutes of Health considers essential for sexual and reproductive development.

It also plays a key role in maintaining muscle mass and bone strength.

Low levels of testosterone can cause a variety of symptoms in men, such as problems with sex drive and mood. It can also increase the risk of diabetes.

Endocrinology - A Specialty Focused on Hormones

Hormones are a huge part of your body's health. They affect the important processes that control your metabolism, blood pressure, cholesterol, appetite, thirst and body temperature. When hormones are out of balance, it can cause a wide range of symptoms and problems.

Endocrinology is a medical specialty that focuses on hormone-related disorders. These specialists diagnose, evaluate and treat diseases that affect the complex network of glands and hormomes, as well as the many other glands in your endocrine system.

Some of the most common endocrine conditions are diabetes and thyroid disease, but there are many more. An endocrinologist can help you find the right treatment plan for your condition and prevent bigger complications.

If your endocrine problem is serious, an endocrinologist may recommend that you have surgery. Examples of procedures an endocrinologist may perform include:

A pancreas transplant: For people with a defective pancreas that produces little or no insulin, a pancreas transplant replaces it from a donor's organ. It's typically used for type 1 diabetes, but can also be used in patients with type 2 diabetes or other types of metabolic disorders.

Thyroidectomy: A thyroidectomy partially or totally removes the thyroid gland, the butterfly-shaped gland in your neck that secretes hormones that control your metabolism, heart rate and calories. It's used for conditions including enlarged thyroid (goiter) and hyperthyroidism, as well as suspicious thyroid nodules.

Brain stereotactic radiosurgery: This less-invasive procedure uses hundreds of tiny radiation beams to shrink tumors on the pituitary gland, a hormone-producing gland in your brain. It's also used to treat conditions such as acromegaly, which can affect the muscles and other parts of your body.

Why Hormones Are Important

The human body contains a number of specialized glands that secrete hormones, which circulate in the bloodstream and control the function of various organs. They are essential for the regulation of many of the body's systems, including digestive, immunity, urinary, reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular functions.

Hormones are important in controlling emotions and moods, as well as sleep, appetite and sex drive among other things.

In our lives, we are constantly exposed to a series of hormonal shifts as we do many things, like when we eat or drink something, when we slam the brakes on a car to avoid a collision, when we experience stress or when we sleep. These changes are controlled by our hormones, and they help our body run as it should, allowing us to have a healthy life.

Numerous different hormones have been identified, with more than 50 known in humans and other vertebrates (Barrington 2019). They are chemical messengers that are released from endocrine glands into the bloodstream to influence the function of target cells.

Their action is regulated by receptor sites located in different organs and tissues that recognize the hormone and act accordingly. The receptors and hormone molecules work together like a lock and key to ensure that only the appropriate cells are affected.

Depending on the type of hormone, they are classified as exocrine or endocrine. The former are secreted from the glands, while the latter enter the bloodstream via capillaries.

Functions of Testosterone

Testosterone is an important hormone for both men and women. It helps to control sex drive, sperm production and bone growth. It also affects how the body stores fat and red blood cell production.

Testosterone levels in the body naturally drop with age. However, it can also be affected by chronic stress.

When you experience chronic stress, your body releases a hormone called cortisol. This hormone helps your body prepare and respond to stressful situations, but if it's circulating in your bloodstream more often than usual (chronic stress), it can reduce testosterone production.

As a result, you may experience fatigue, low mood and sluggishness, trouble with erections and erectile dysfunction (ED), weight gain and enlarged prostate. 

The amount of testosterone in the body is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which are located in the brain. When these organs aren't working properly, they can cause low testosterone levels, or "hypogonadism."

In fetal development, testosterone is produced in the testes and ovary by the Leydig cells. This hormone stimulates the differentiation of the Wolffian duct structures that form the male urogenital tract.

It also increases bone mass and prevents osteoporosis. The hormone promotes lengthening of the endochondral period, which results in a taller skeleton with longer bones and thicker periosteal tissues.

Similarly, a lower level of testosterone in the body can interfere with bone formation. When this happens, your bones aren't as strong and you're more likely to develop a spongy skeletal structure.

Aside from these functions, testosterone is also responsible for promoting sexual pleasure in men. It's a key hormone for maintaining a man's masculine features, including a deep voice and the development of muscle.

Testosterone plays an important role in a woman's uterus and ovary during pregnancy, as well as a man's scrotum and sexual secretory glands. This hormone can also be harmful to a unborn baby, so women should not try to become pregnant while taking testosterone.

Here's the key points:

  1. Development of male sex characteristics: During puberty, testosterone triggers the development of male sex characteristics, such as a deeper voice, facial and body hair growth, and a more muscular physique.

  2. Sexual function: Testosterone is essential for maintaining sexual function in both men and women. It stimulates the production of sperm and enhances sexual desire and performance.

  3. Muscle mass and strength: Testosterone helps build and maintain muscle mass and strength by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle tissue.

  4. Bone density: Testosterone plays a key role in maintaining bone density, which is important for preventing osteoporosis and fractures.

  5. Red blood cell production: Testosterone stimulates the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body.

  6. Mood and cognition: Testosterone has been shown to improve mood, energy levels, and cognitive function in some studies.

  7. Metabolic health: Testosterone helps regulate metabolism by promoting fat loss and maintaining insulin sensitivity.

Health Benefits of Testosterone

Testosterone is the hormone that plays a key role in male development and growth. It’s produced in a man’s testes and ovaries, and in a woman’s ovaries and adrenal glands. Men produce more testosterone during adolescence and early adulthood, while women typically have low levels as they age. Testosterone is good for the following key areas: 

Healthy bones – Testosterone strengthens the bone structure and helps prevent osteoporosis. It also helps prevent osteopenia, or a lower bone density, and it helps decrease the risk of fractures as you age.

Improved mental health – Testosterone increases testosterone levels in the brain, improving memory and cognitive function. It also promotes better sleep and a healthier mood, which may help reduce the effects of depression.

Enhances energy – Testosterone can help you have more energy and better stamina to get through your daily activities. It also helps with weight loss, as it increases muscle mass and reduces fat.

Maintains heart and vascular health – Testosterone lowers blood pressure and dilates the arteries of the heart, reducing your risk for heart disease. It can also help with diabetes and triglycerides.

Improves cognitive function – Higher levels of testosterone have been linked to a decreased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. It also improves spatial abilities and helps with memory and learning.

Enhanced sexual function – Testosterone can increase a man’s libido and improve his sexual desire. It can also increase his erectile function.

If you’re interested in boosting your testosterone levels, talk to your doctor about your options and the benefits they can offer you. There are many ways to treat low testosterone, including gels and creams, patches, and intramuscular injections.

How Does a Man Get Testosterone?

Testosterone is a male sex hormone produced by your testes (also called gonads). In people assigned male at birth (AMAB), your testes produce the majority of testosterone; in people assigned female at birth, the ovaries and adrenal glands produce much of it.

Your ovaries and adrenal glands produce the hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA is converted by your body to testosterone, estrogen and progesterone.

A person's testosterone level depends on their age and their genetic makeup. As you get older, your testes naturally lose testosterone.

In men, low levels of testosterone can cause erectile dysfunction (ED). They can also increase the risk of prostate cancer and other problems.

Treatment for ED is available. It may include taking medication that increases your testosterone.

Testosterone treatments come in various forms, including injections, pills, gels and patches that can be applied to your skin. These are effective for some people, but you should talk to your doctor about the best option for you.

The medications you take to boost your testosterone can cause some side effects, such as depression and bloating. They can also raise your blood hematocrit (the amount of thick blood in the bloodstream).

Getting enough testosterone is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, so it's best to have regular blood tests. The most common symptoms of low testosterone are a decline in strength and sex drive, but other issues may be involved as well.

Read more about how a man produces testosterone, here.

Dose-Response Relationship of Boosted Testosterone in Male Athletes

Among athletes, testosterone is the key androgen hormone. It acts on the brain to enhance athletic performance (Gleason et al, 2009; Hermans et al, 2008).

Androgens are also thought to stimulate muscle growth and reduce body fat. They may also increase bone density and help prevent osteoporosis.

The increased concentration of testosterone following puberty in men is believed to account for sex-related differences in competitive sports. Compared to females, males produce a 20-fold higher level of testosterone after puberty, resulting in 15-fold higher circulating levels.

Testosterone increases a man's genitals, facial and body hair, and voice to make them "normally masculine." But it can also cause bad behaviors like aggression and impatience.

Some people who are genetically male but lack the ability to use testosterone properly have a condition called androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). These individuals do not respond normally to the male sex hormones, so they don't grow a normal penis or testicles during their teenage years.

These individuals have a mutation in the androgen receptor (AR) on the X chromosome. AIS is found in some men, but less often in women.

Using steroids to get high blood levels of testosterone is illegal in sports and can make you a suspect for a drug test. Fortunately, there are treatments that can raise your testosterone naturally without having to worry about a drug test. These treatments can be given in the form of injections, oral/buccal (by mouth), or by patches placed on your skin above your incisor (eyetooth). It's important to talk to your doctor about these options so you can find the right one for you.

When Are Androgen Levels Highest?


The highest levels of androgens in men are produced in the testes. These hormones provide men with a strong sex drive and the ability to build muscle mass. They also play a role in the development of secondary sex characteristics and the production of sperm.

Women produce androgens in the ovaries, adrenal glands and other tissues. These hormones are converted into estrogen. Estrogen is important for normal ovulation, the thickening of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Androgen levels are also increased during puberty, and they decline gradually as a woman ages. During menopause, testosterone levels fall 50 percent or more from their peak in the teen years.

What are the most common signs of androgen deficiency?

If your body isn't producing enough testosterone, it can cause symptoms like low libido (a desire for or interest in sex), fatigue and increased susceptibility to bone loss and osteoporosis. 


Androgens are a group of hormones that help females menstruate, grow, develop and reproduce. They are present in higher amounts in males than in females.

For females. the most common cause of androgen excess is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It causes irregular periods, infertility, blood sugar disorders like diabetes and obesity, as well as other symptoms including acne and thinning hair.

Medications and supplements to control high levels of androgens may be helpful for some women. But these medications are not for everyone and can have unwanted side effects such as libido loss and fatigue.

In some cases, a woman's androgen levels can be low due to aging. Testosterone production drops with age, and by the time a woman is 40 years old, her androgen levels are half of what they were when she was 20.

Other causes include adrenal or ovarian tumors and birth defects. A baby born with a condition called androgen insufficiency syndrome has genitals that look female or mix male and female sex.

The ovaries produce testosterone, and the adrenal glands manufacture dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Your health care professional will compare your total testosterone to the protein SHBG to determine how much androgen is in your bloodstream.

Your doctor will tell you how to treat your androgen excess depending on your symptoms and other health conditions you have. It can be as simple as adjusting your diet and exercise.

Read more about androgen levels in women, here.

Testosterone Levels by Age

Testosterone is a powerful hormone that has many functions in the body. It regulates sex drive, helps to build muscle mass, promotes energy levels and increases stamina.

The amount of testosterone in the bloodstream varies for each individual. This is largely due to age and genetics.

Typically, a man's testosterone levels peak at about age 20 and start to decline slowly as he ages. The rate of change is about one to two percent per year.

There are a few different ways to measure testosterone. The most common is through a testosterone test.

A total testosterone test will show you how much of the hormone is in your bloodstream. This number is usually reported in nanograms (ng) or deciliters (dl).

It's important to note that a high total testosterone level can be a sign of health problems. This is because it will affect your body's ability to absorb nutrients.

In addition, a low total testosterone level can cause fatigue and reduced sexual drive. It can also affect a woman's menstrual cycle and her fertility.

Testosterone levels are also affected by the amount of estrogen in the body. The higher the levels of estrogen, the lower the testosterone.

Low Testosterone Symptoms

Testosterone is a male hormone that is made in the testicles and is essential to normal sexual development and function. It is also important for bone growth, muscle mass and fertility in men. Usually, testosterone levels decrease with age. Besides, many diseases and conditions can affect testosterone production.

A common symptom of testosterone deficiency is low libido, or sex drive. This is because the lower level of testosterone leads to a less active sex life and lower sperm count. Other symptoms may include a decreased ability to get or keep an erection, loss of body hair and muscle mass, and an increased risk of infertility.

If you have these symptoms, your doctor will do a blood test to check your testosterone levels. The most common way to do this is through the luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) tests, which measure the hormones that tell your testicles to make testosterone.

Your doctor will also want to do a total blood testosterone level, which will measure the amount of testosterone in your blood. This blood test should be done at two different times, in the morning before noon and after you have been up for a while.

Depending on the test results, your doctor may want to do additional testing to find out more about why you are having these symptoms. The doctor will check for other conditions that can cause these symptoms or make them worse, such as a thyroid disease, depression, and medication side effects.

This is an important factor to consider, as it may help you understand your symptoms and make the best treatment decisions for yourself. It will also help you feel better about your situation and improve your overall health.

In other cases, a man may have low testosterone because of a condition called hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. This type of testosterone deficiency happens when your body can't make enough of the hormone or it doesn't produce the correct amount of sperm. This condition can occur when you have a damaged testicle or when you have lost part of your testicles, such as after you have been treated with chemotherapy.

Is Hypogonadism Hereditary?

You may be more likely to have low testosterone (hypogonadism) if you have certain genetic variations. For example, men who have three or more different variants in a gene called Sex Hormone Binging Globulin (SHBG) are nearly seven times more likely to have low testosterone than men with none of the genetic variations.

Klinefelter Syndrome

A condition known as Klinefelter syndrome causes an extra X chromosome that affects testicle development and production of the male hormone testosterone. This type of genetic hypogonadism is rare, but it does occur in some families.

Primary Hypogonadism

Some men develop hypogonadism at a younger age than others, often as a result of congenital conditions that make it difficult for the testes to produce testosterone. These include Turner syndrome in women and Klinefelter syndrome in men.

Other X-linked genetic disorders can also cause primary hypogonadism in males, including Prader-Willi syndrome and Prader-Willi type 1 syndrome. These disorders can also cause a range of other problems, such as growth delay and heart disease.

Late-Onset Hypogonadism

People who have low testosterone and sperm count as they get older are more likely to have other health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, and low bone density (osteoporosis). It is thought that testosterone decreases in men as they grow older because of damage to the hypothalamus and pituitary glands that produce it.

Other X-linked genes associated with CCH/KS include IGFS10, ANOS1, FTO and TFAP5. They have been linked to prepubertal onset hypogonadism in many cases, but it is not clear how they contribute to this disorder.

Why Testosterone Levels Have Dropped Over History

Testosterone is an important hormone in both men and women, but testosterone has been declining over history. A number of factors could be behind the trend, and the causes are often complex.

It’s thought that testosterone declines by a small amount every year after a man’s 30th birthday. This is known as a normal, age-related decline.

The reason this is happening is a mystery to many people, and it’s not as easy to diagnose as other health conditions. But researchers believe there are a few things that can be done to retain your natural testosterone levels.

Historical testosterone decline

There are many purported reasons why the levels of testosterone are in decline compared to past generations, but many put it down too overly processed foods, other poor dietary options or choices, a lack of exercise and sleep and more time spent inside away from direct sunlight.

While low testosterone is associated with various health issues, it’s also possible to keep your levels up with good habits and an energizing diet. It’s also possible to get a professional blood test for your testosterone levels, which can help you see if there are any underlying health issues that could be impacting your hormones.

Is Testosterone a Protein or a Lipid?

There are three major groups of hormones in the body: peptide, protein and steroid (lipid) hormones. Peptide hormones are molecules made of chains of amino acids, such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate fluid balance.

Steroid Hormones are derived from lipids, including cholesterol and triglycerides. Examples of steroid hormones include the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone, which are produced by the ovaries and testes, and the progestagens, which are a type of steroid that stimulates follicle growth during pregnancy.

Lipids are hydrocarbon molecules that have nonpolar carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds and are often water-fearing. They can come in a variety of forms, such as fats and oils, triglycerides, triacylglycerols, waxes, and phospholipids.

They are found in many tissues and cells throughout the body, including muscle, liver, adipose tissue and lymphatics. They serve several functions, including regulation of cell metabolism and cellular growth and differentiation.

Deficiencies in a number of these lipids are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, which is known to lead to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal lipid oxidation is impaired in mice with low testosterone and testicular feminization, and these defects are reversed by testosterone treatment.

Plasma lipid concentrations and lipoprotein particle sizes, as well as hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) and apolipoprotein B-100 secretion rates, increased in response to trandermal testosterone administration for 3 wk. However, the increase in skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was significantly smaller than that seen before treatment (P 0.001). In addition, there were small decreases in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, which were not statistically significant.

HDL Cholesterol Subfractions and the Effect of Testosterone

Increasing interest in the use of testosterone replacement therapy as a treatment for cardiovascular disease has been fueled by numerous clinical trials. In addition to improving insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control in men with diabetes, testosterone therapy has been shown to decrease blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides.

Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are widely recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and comprise part of the metabolic syndrome. Several studies have reported the effects of testosterone on HDL-C, but there is some controversy regarding how testosterone affects the plasma HDL-C level.

Researchers have investigated the effect of testosterone on lipoprotein composition by quantifying the hepatic expression of genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism, such as SREBP2, LXRa, HMGCR, LDLR, and CYP7A1 in pigs fed a high-fat diet. The mRNAs of SREBP2, LXRa, and HMGCR were not affected by castration or testosterone replacement.

In contrast, hepatic LDLR mRNA expression was decreased by castration and reversed by testosterone replacement. In addition, hepatic mRNA of PCSK9 was increased by castration and reversed by testosterone replacement.

The hepatic protein contents of lipids were determined by ultracentrifugation and the serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by a modified assay of lipoprotein subfractions by a gradient gel method. These methods are widely used in hepatic HDL-C fractionation studies and provide an objective measurement of the size and cholesterol mass of each lipoprotein subfraction.

Learn more, here.

Testosterone and Adrenal Fatigue

The hormone testosterone helps you build muscle, burn fat and get energized. When it's out of balance, you can experience fatigue, irritability and other symptoms that impact your quality of life.

Testosterone also stimulates your immune system to fight off infections and reduce inflammation. If you are not getting enough of it, you may be more prone to catching colds or the flu and have difficulty fighting off illness and disease.

Adrenal Fatigue

Your adrenal glands play a major role in managing your stress levels and keeping you healthy. They produce and secrete more than 50 essential hormones, including cortisol.

But when they begin to work at subpar levels, your body can't properly deal with stress, leading to a condition called adrenal fatigue.

This happens when your body stops producing the right amount of cortisol, a critical stress hormone that plays a key role in regulating your mood and energy.

A natural approach to restoring healthy adrenal function is proven to help you feel calmer, more energized and more in control of your stress responses. The program includes a specific diet, supplements and lifestyle steps that are designed to rebalance your hormones.

Symptoms of fatigue are often the first sign that your adrenals are in trouble. They include a lack of energy, insomnia and trouble falling asleep.

Weight gain is also a common symptom of adrenal fatigue. Your body has a hard time dealing with high cortisol levels and begins to store fat for future use.

Testosterone Synthesis Pathways

Testosterone, the most potent androgen in men, is synthesized by Leydig cells of the testes. Its actions are also mediated by its androgenic metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

The pathway for the biosynthesis of testosterone is relatively simple but complex and involves several enzymes. The first step is the oxidative cleavage of cholesterol by P450scc to yield pregnenolone.

Next, two carbon atoms are removed by cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase to produce C19 steroids such as androstenedione. Finally, 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase removes the last three keto atoms to form testosterone.

Hormones acting on LHCGR trigger a cascade of events that result in activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which in turn activate steroidogenic genes such as Stard1 and stimulate testosterone production. However, the exact molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes are not fully understood.

In mice, a peptide hormone produced by the adrenal glands, called luteinizing hormone (LH), regulates testosterone synthesis and metabolism in Leydig cells by stimulating different pathways and targets. 

Treatment with LH increases steroidogenesis-related genes, including Scarb1, Cyp11a1, and Cyp17a1, while the combination of MENT and LH leads to increased expression of these and other steroid metabolic enzymes such as Sult1a1 and Akr1c14.

In humans, the steroid synthesis pathway is involved in various physiologic and pathological conditions such as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hepatic steatosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, and virilization in adolescence.

CRPC tumors exhibit altered expression of several genes in the steroid synthesis pathway, indicating that they have the ability to utilize steroid precursors, especially cholesterol, as sources for testosterone and DHT conversion.

Why Does Testosterone Not Affect All Cells in the Body?

Testosterone is produced by the testes (in men) and ovaries (in women). The Leydig cells in the testes produce testosterone, while the Sertoli cells in the male gonads need it for sperm production.

Hormones are chemicals that signal tissue changes in the body, such as growth and development or reproductive function. They are also used to treat or prevent disease and improve overall health.

During fetal development, testosterone helps develop the male internal and external reproductive organs. It also increases the number of red blood cells and promotes bone growth.

The steroid testosterone does make its way into the bloodstream, where it binds with about 54% of the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 44% of the albumin and 22% as free or unbound tetrahydrotestosterone. Testosterone stimulates sperm production, helps keep a man’s muscles pumped up and aids in bone development and fat loss.

Testosterone also stimulates the growth of hair, and has been linked to an increase in height, a shinier tan and a more defined jawline, not to mention better muscle tone and definition.

Most men will never know it, but their testicles were the recipients of a large number of testosterone molecules during puberty. Long-term use of exogenous testosterone (steroids) or over-the-counter steroid treatments can result in a loss of testosterone and the associated male characteristics - testicular atrophy, thinning hair and a slightly heavier derriere.

Some men may need to use testosterone replacement therapy, which is typically prescribed by a doctor. When testosterone is taken at the right dosage, it can increase muscle mass, reduce fat and boost libido, which will increase his chances of having a healthy, happy life.

Athletes who take testosterone for performance enhancement are often at risk of side effects, such as elevated blood pressure and a higher risk of blood clots. Taking too much testosterone is called anabolic steroid abuse and can cause dangerous health problems, including heart disease, prostate cancer and stroke.

Learn more, here.

What Are Leydig Cells?

Leydig cells are the major site for the synthesis of testosterone, the predominant male steroid hormone. They are primarily found in the testis but also in some other organs, including the ovaries.

These endocrine cells are composed of smooth endoplasmic reticulum with lots of mitochondria with tubular cristae, lipid droplets and lysosome/peroxisomes. They can accumulate lipofuscin granules as well.

The major physiologic function of fetal Leydig cells is to produce testosterone or androgen, which induces a number of male sex characteristics and behaviors, such as male external genitalia and brain masculinization. During the postnatal period, however, the numbers of fetal Leydig cells decline, and testosterone production gradually increases with the development of adult Leydig cells from stem cells in the neonatal testis.

This transition from infantile to adult Leydig cells, which maintain androgens through life, is regulated by paracrine signals such as platelet-derived growth factor and desert hedgehog. They may also play a role in the proliferation of other cell lineages in the testis.

In addition to their endocrine function, these cells are the source of cholesterol for the synthesis of testosterone. They receive this supply either by receptor-mediated endocytosis or by de novo synthesis from acetate. They are also the main site of 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, which is a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the androgen. The molecule that mediates this reaction is cytochrome P450, which is found in the mitochondria.

Hypogonadism Caused by a Homozygous Missense Mutation in the LHB Gene

The luteinizing hormone (LH) beta subunit is essential for gonadal development, spermatogenesis, and endocrine functions. Defects in this gene have been linked to idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS).

LH is produced by the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) located in the adenohypophysis. The b-subunit is also regulated by a gene, the LHB gene, which is expressed in the male reproductive tissues and in the adrenal glands, as well as in some brain areas.

In LH b-subunit knockout mice, a severe phenotype of idiopathic IHH is observed in both sexes, including delayed pubertal development, spermatogenesis defects, and infertility.

A homozygous missense mutation in the LHB gene (c.262C>T: p.R88W) was identified in a 30-year-old man who presented with delayed puberty and hypogonadism associated with an absence of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH).

Treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin restored testosterone levels, virilization, and normal spermatogenesis.

Inactivating mutations in the LHR gene are the cause of a rare form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypergonadism known as luteinizing hormone-hypergonadotropic hypergonadism (LH-HGHT).

In males, HGHT-deficient patients show an absence of ovulation at puberty with low serum FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, oligo-amenorrhea, and male pseudohermaphroditism.

Congenital IHH is a heterogeneous disorder, and it can be either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive.

Although sporadic cases predominate, some families have complex inheritance patterns involving polygenic forms with variable transmissions of the affected allele(s). These disorders are often reversible, and in some cases can be reversed.

Is Testosterone and Androgen the Same Thing?

Testosterone (T) and androgen hormones are different.

Testosterone is the most well-known of the androgens, which include dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. These androgens regulate a number of male body functions, including sexual development, libido, prostate and breast growth, and sebaceous gland function.

The androgens are produced in the testes, ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. They also are metabolized in the liver.

Androgen production declines with age in men and women. This decrease can cause symptoms such as fatigue, sex problems, poor exercise tolerance, and depression.

Treatment for testosterone deficiency in men includes injections of testosterone, or using drugs that block the action of androgens on the androgen receptor. Examples of these include the drugs apalutamide and bicalutamide.

Other treatments for low or excess androgen levels in women are dietary changes, ovulation induction with progestins, and antiandrogens such as drospirenone. For those with polycystic ovary syndrome, doctors may prescribe combination estrogen and testosterone pills that contain both hormones.

It's important to note that testosterone is not only produced in the testes but can also be found in a woman's ovaries and adrenal glands.

However, the ovaries are responsible for about 40% to 50% of peripheral androgens during the menstrual cycle. This explains why total testosterone (a measure of all available testosterone) has a small peak around ovulation. In contrast, free testosterone (a measure of readily available testosterone) is more stable and tends to have no significant effect on ovulation.

Learn more, here.

The Link Between Testosterone and the Prostate

Testosterone is a male hormone that helps to control your body's growth. It's also important for your libido, mood, and energy levels.

Men who don't have enough testosterone can have a condition called hypogonadism. It's very common, affecting an estimated 2.4 million men in the United States and one-quarter of all men by age 70.

The Prostate

Testosterone helps to regulate prostate function, including nitric oxide (NO) production and smooth muscle tone in the prostate gland. When there's not enough T, NO production can decrease and lead to an enlarged prostate.

Some doctors think that testosterone might promote the growth of prostate cancer, but this isn't proven yet. Androgen-blocking medications slow prostate cancer growth by blocking the messages to the testicles that tell them to make testosterone.

Low Testosterone Levels Can Cause or Worsen BPH

When your testosterone levels are low, you may have a condition called male hypogonadism, which causes many symptoms, including poor sexual performance, loss of libido, and weight gain.

Treatment options include medication to stop the testicles from producing testosterone or surgery to remove the testicles, also known as orchiectomy.

The Link Between Testosterone and Prostate Cancer

Some doctors believe that testosterone fuels prostate cancer growth, which makes them reluctant to prescribe testosterone therapy for men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer.

But more research is needed to understand this connection. Some also worry that raising testosterone levels in men who have already been treated for prostate cancer might stifle the immune system and help cancer cells become resistant to treatment sooner.

Is There a Difference Between Estrogen and Testosterone?

Whether you're a man or woman, hormones play an important role in regulating your health. They also help you feel good and perform well.

The sex hormones estrogen and testosterone play an especially crucial role in male sexual development, function, and libido.

Testosterone stimulates sexual response, increases muscle mass and bone density, strengthens ligaments, improves blood flow to the brain, helps maintain normal cholesterol levels, and protects against heart disease in men.

Estrogen regulates the menstrual cycle and is essential for fertility. It triggers the ovary to release an egg, and it's a key factor in the production of sperm.

High levels of estrogen can cause a condition called gynecomastia, which occurs when a woman develops a breast full of fat tissue. It can also lead to erectile dysfunction and acne.

A sex hormone that's produced in both males and females, estrogen is found in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. It's released into the bloodstream, where it binds to estrogen receptors located throughout your body.

In contrast, testosterone is mainly found in the testes and ovaries of men. It boosts libido, enhances physical activity, increases stamina and restful sleep, and promotes a sense of well-being.

How testosterone is made?

The hormone is produced by the testes and ovaries in men, as well as by the adrenal glands in women.

If a person cannot produce enough of their own testosterone they can receive doses of synthetic testosterone which can be absorbed through the skin (patch, topical cream, or subcutaneous pellet) in small amounts.

Read more about the differences, here.

Does Low Testosterone Affect Estrogen Levels?

Testosterone is one of the three sex hormones along with estrogen and progesterone. Both men and women produce testosterone throughout their bodies. However, the ratios are drastically different, and levels start to drop with age.

When do women see a drop in testosterone?

Testosterone decreases with age starting in a person's twenties, and is generally lowest around age 50. The waning of this important male hormone can cause many bothersome symptoms, including low libido (sex drive), hot flashes, and loss of bone density.

How does low testosterone affect estrogen levels?

Estrogen is produced in men as a byproduct of the breakdown of testosterone through an enzyme called aromatase. As such low testosterone can affect estrogen levels.

And since men's bodies require estrogen to function, it makes sense that an imbalance in these hormones can cause a variety of unpleasant symptoms.

Testosterone Levels in Women Are Critical to a Woman's Overall Health

This male sex hormone helps to maintain healthy reproductive tissues and bones, as well as support human behaviors like desire and arousal in both men and women.

The hormone testosterone is produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands in small amounts. Combined with estrogen, testosterone is a key hormone that affects many aspects of a woman's health and behavior.

Low testosterone is one of the main reasons postmenopausal women experience less sexual desire and libido.

While there are a number of factors that contribute to low libido, one of the best things you can do is replace your low testosterone with normal youthful levels through a hormone replacement therapy program.

High testosterone is often a sign of an underlying medical condition such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Treatment for this condition depends on the cause of the elevated hormone.

A healthy testosterone range for women is 15 to 70 ng/dL of blood. However, this range may vary depending on a person's age and health, as well as their genetics.

Female bodies tend to produce 1/10th to 1/20th the amount of testosterone that men do, and this decreases with age. This is due to a process called aromatization, which converts female testosterone into estrogen.

Having high testosterone can lead to many symptoms such as weight gain, excess hair growth, poor fertility, acne and infertility. In addition, it can increase the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease.

Learn more about testosterone levels in women, here.

Can a Woman Have Too Much Testosterone?

Increased levels of testosterone in a woman are commonly associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a hormonal condition that can cause irregular menstrual cycles and infertility issues.

In PCOS, a woman may have numerous small egg-containing follicles that form around the ovaries.

Hormone tests can help diagnose PCOS and determine the underlying cause of an elevated testosterone level. The test will look at a woman’s total hormone levels, including the ratio of male and female hormones.

A medical doctor will usually recommend treatment to reduce or control symptoms. Some of these treatments include lifestyle changes, medications to lower the level of testosterone, or a combination of both.

Hirsutism, a symptom of high testosterone, can result in growth of unwanted hair on the back, chest, face, and other parts of the body. Overtime, this can lead to excess facial and body hair that looks coarse and unattractive.

Excess Androgens and PCOS

Excess Androgens

In both sexes, the testicles and ovaries produce androgens, which help start puberty. They also stimulate pubic and underarm hair growth. These hormones are important for development of the genitals (including breasts), reproductive health, bone growth and energy levels.

Men make more androgens than women, which can affect a male's body and sex drive. Some men take testosterone-boosting medication to treat symptoms such as fatigue, low sex drive and erectile dysfunction.

The ovaries in women also make androgens, as do the adrenal glands that sit on top of each kidney. Adrenal problems, such as Cushing syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, can also cause excess production of androgens.

Hormone Therapy

For some women, a combination of estrogen and testosterone (hormone therapy, or HT) is effective in boosting libido, energy and well-being. HT is available in both oral and injected formulations.

Combination estrogen/testosterone medications are safe, effective and have few adverse effects. They may help a woman reduce the risk of cancer of the ovaries and endometrial lining.

Oral estrogens also increase levels of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG reduces free testosterone. Glucocorticoids, used to treat asthma or inflammation, can also suppress androgen production.

Genetic Variants

Polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are thought to be associated with the hyperandrogenic phenotype in PCOS, but more research is needed. These polymorphisms can aggravate the hyperandrogenic phenotype by either upregulating or downregulating the expression of these genes, which further increases androgens in women with PCOS.

Androstenedione Vs Testosterone

Androstenedione is a hormone that your body makes when you get more dandruff, oily skin, and more body odor. It also plays a role in regulating your bones and muscle mass.

It's produced by a compound called 17b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. You make more and more of it as you grow older. It's a steroid prohormone, meaning it can be aromatized into estrogen in the body.

There are several genes that affect how much androstenedione your body naturally produces. These include TNFSF9, CYP17A1, and CYP19.

Those who have a T allele of TNFSF9 are more likely to have high levels of androstenedione, while people with a C allele are more likely to have low amounts.

Genetics play a big part in how your body makes androstenedione, but researchers don't know the full details. They do know that CYP19 is an enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen and androstenedione to estrone.

The CYP19 gene can be altered in some people with PCOS. This can result in low androstenedione, or even in a lack of this hormone altogether.

A study in postmenopausal women showed that a single dose of oral androstenedione increases testosterone, androstenedione, and estrone levels in these women, but not serum estradiol.

This is in contrast to other studies in men that show that androstenedione increases serum estradiol but does not increase testosterone at equivalent doses.

How Does Testosterone Affect a Woman's Libido?

Testosterone is one of the most important male hormones for sexual development. It's produced mainly in the testes, but it also gets converted to estrogen in the ovaries. The brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland control how much testosterone is made by these organs, so levels stay normal.

When it's needed, it helps maintain strong bones and muscles, boost energy and stamina, and even increase your sense of well-being. It also helps regulate your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, which can improve your heart health.

It's used to treat many conditions related to aging, such as loss of bone mass and muscle strength, low energy, depression, and erectile dysfunction (ED).

Men's use of testosterone-based drugs, called anabolic steroids, has been linked to serious problems, including high blood pressure, stroke, prostate cancer, heart disease, and sexually transmitted diseases.

What's more, a recent study shows that testosterone may boost sexual desire and arousal in women who have a problem with menopause-related low libido. The researchers found that women who took a combination of estrogen and testosterone had a "two-fold improvement" in their sexual desire, compared with those who got estrogen alone.

This is still research, but it's a step in the right direction to help women who have severe low libido after menopause.

Treatment may involve lifestyle changes, medications, and counseling for relationship problems. The key is to identify the underlying causes of your low libido so that we can find the best solution for you.

Does Testosterone Improve Postmenopausal Sexual Desire?

Low sex drive can happen to women at any time but it is more common as you get older and go through the menopause. The causes can be complex and the hormones estrogen and testosterone have a big role to play.

Testosterone is an androgen (male sex hormone) which contributes to libido and orgasm as well as helping maintain normal metabolic function, muscle strength, cognitive function and mood.

As with estrogen, it drops in women as they get older and can cause symptoms such as vaginal dryness, hot flushes and low mood.

It can also affect the amount of sperm in the ovaries and may cause some sexual problems such as vaginal dryness or a change in the shape of your breasts.

Some women have a problem with low sex drive at the time of the menopause and it can be difficult to know what to do about it. Hormone replacement therapy containing estrogen can help but some women find they need a higher dose of the hormone.

Researchers reviewed 46 previously published reports of 36 randomized controlled trials involving testosterone treatment and found that it was effective for improving postmenopausal sexual desire. It was also safe when it was administered as a skin patch or cream rather than orally, the researchers said.

The authors of the review wrote that their findings provide “robust support” for a clinical trial of testosterone treatment in postmenopausal women and that further research is needed to clarify its effects on pre- and perimenopausal sexual health.

They recommend that any decision regarding testosterone therapy should be individualized and include an informed-consent discussion about the risks and benefits.

Is There a Connection Between Low Testosterone and Transgender Transition?

A large number of transgender men and women take testosterone, both to achieve a male morphology and to suppress the release of hormones from their testes or ovaries.

This treatment can lead to a range of effects, including thickening of the vocal cords (this causes your voice to sound male) and changes in patterns of hair growth.

If you're planning on starting testosterone, it's a good idea to start on lower doses and wait until you've found one that works for you. As with cisgender men, it can take years for testosterone to cause the desired changes to appear.

Some people notice that their voices change a lot when they begin testosterone, with a scratchy feeling in the throat and hoarseness. As the new, male-sounding voice develops, you may find your speech is more full and clearer.

In addition to physical changes, hormone therapy can also impact your emotions and how you perceive things. This may include a change in your perception of temperature and pain or a change in your taste in foods or scents.

Taking testosterone can affect your mood and energy levels as well. If you're feeling down, it may help to talk to your health care team about this.

As with all hormones, it's a good idea to discuss your concerns with your healthcare team before you decide to take testosterone. This will allow you to feel confident about your decision and to be fully informed about what to expect.

Is Testosterone Hydrophilic?

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that circulates in the blood of both males and females. It is a lipid-derived hormone, which means it must travel to cells by binding to a transport protein.

This is a very different structure from hormones derived from amino acids, which are water-soluble and readily enter cells by direct diffusion.

Androgen receptors exist in a wide range of body tissues, and both males and females respond to testosterone at similar levels (Tong and Dong, 2009).

Testosterone is a key signaling molecule involved in the development of male sexual characteristics, and it is also implicated in regulating body temperature and arousal during stress.

The synthesis of testosterone is an intracellular process that is mediated by cytochrome P450 oxidases (CYPscc). Like other steroid hormones, the first step in testosterone biosynthesis is cholesterol side-chain cleavage to give pregnenolone.

Once cleaved, the resulting molecule is further reduced by 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to yield testosterone. It is then bound to a membrane-bound receptor and activated via an indirect adapter system involving a ligand-binding receptor and a G-protein coupled receptor.

Hydroxylation of steroid precursors is an important aspect of their biological activity, as number and position of hydroxyl groups are crucial for their actions (Bureik and Bernhardt, 2007; Donova and Egorova, 2012).

In order to obtain high-quality hydroxylated steroids, highly selective hydroxylation is necessary (Kille et al., 2011).

Various approaches have been developed to increase whole-cell hydroxylation activities of microbial enzymes based on oxygenase systems (Duetz and Schrewe, 2001; Kille et al., 2011).

We here exploit the combination of a highly active CYP450 variant KSA14m and a suitable hydrophobic outer membrane protein such as AlkL to achieve regio- and stereoselective testosterone hydroxylation.

This approach has the potential to boost productivities and productivity of microbial steroid conversion processes.

Read more about it, here.

Can Prednisone Affect Testosterone Levels?

What is Prednisone?

Prednisone is a prescription medicine used to treat a wide range of illnesses and conditions. It lowers inflammation and suppresses the immune system to help treat conditions such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma.

It can also be used to treat gastrointestinal diseases, lung problems and flares of multiple sclerosis.

What are the side effects of Prednisone?

Prednisone can cause side effects such as weight gain, increased blood sugar and restlessness. Some of these side effects may be uncomfortable or even dangerous.

Long-term steroid use can cause permanent low testosterone, called hypogonadism. It may also reduce the body's natural production of testosterone and estrogen, which can lead to erectile dysfunction and other sexual problems.

In the case of anabolic steroids, this is a particularly serious issue. They stimulate muscle growth by mimicking the effects of testosterone, the male sex hormone that is produced naturally by the testes.

They also produce high levels of estrogen, which can interfere with the body's physiologic balance between testosterone and estrogen.

It can take anywhere from three months to a year to restore normal testosterone levels in the body after taking anabolic steroids, according to research published in The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

That's why you should only use these drugs if you are under medical supervision.

Some drugs, including antihistamines and certain painkillers, can cause low testosterone levels in men. For example, antihistamines like diphenhydramine and dimenhydrinate can lower testosterone levels by reducing histamine production.

Another type of drug that can affect testosterone levels is glucocorticoids, which are commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and other inflammatory conditions.

Studies have shown that these drugs can decrease testosterone levels in men, as well as luteinizing hormone (LH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels.

Testosterone and Epilepsy

Testosterone is the main hormone responsible for promoting the development of male sex organs, sexual traits and sperm.

When testosterone levels drop below normal, males can experience symptoms including fatigue, low energy level and lowered muscle mass. This can cause a precipitous decline in men’s health and libido, which in turn can make it difficult to have a sexual relationship.

Hormones and Epilepsy

Many of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used to control epileptic seizures are known to alter a person’s release of certain hormones. These changes may contribute to hormonal imbalances and the onset of seizures.

AEDs can also affect the brain regions that regulate sexual function and sperm production. Research has shown that a number of AEDs can directly influence the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which are responsible for releasing hormones that affect sexuality.

The hormonal and neurological changes that occur in the brain of a patient with persistent seizures can have a significant impact on a man’s libido.

These changes can be exacerbated by fear that sexual activity will trigger a seizure, particularly if the triggering event is physical exertion or hyperventilation.

One of the most promising therapeutic approaches to improve a man’s sexual function and libido is to reduce his exposure to AEDs, and to increase his testosterone levels.

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available in several forms, including testosterone ester (Sustanon), which lowers the seizure threshold in some patients. TRT can also be paired with an aromatase inhibitor to further tamper down nervous system excitability.

Testosterone and the Prostate

Testosterone is a male hormone that promotes growth and development in the body, including the prostate. However, it can also fuel the growth of prostate cancer if used in large amounts.

There are several types of hormone therapy that can be used to treat prostate cancer. They include medicines that reduce the amount of testosterone in a man's body, and surgery that lowers the amount of androgens made by the testicles.

Drugs that prevent testosterone from being made by the testicles, adrenal glands, and prostate tumor cells are called androgen synthesis inhibitors. These drugs can reduce the amount of testosterone in a man's blood by blocking an enzyme called CYP17, which is found in these tissues.

Some medicines that reduce the amount of androgens in a man's blood can cause memory problems. This problem is more common in men who have prostate cancer than in those without the disease.

Taking testosterone for longer periods of time can also increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Fortunately, there are treatments that can reduce the side effects of testosterone therapy.

A small study suggests that testosterone may be safe for some men with a history of prostate cancer, who have completed treatment and are at low risk for a recurrence of their disease.

The authors conclude that "the longstanding prohibition against testosterone therapy in men with untreated or low risk prostate cancer or treated prostate cancer without evidence of metastatic or recurrent disease merits reevaluation."

It is important to remember that there is no proof that testosterone increases the likelihood of prostate cancer, so doctors should monitor a man's PSA and other tests regularly while he is taking testosterone.

Kidney Stones and Testosterone

Kidney stones are hard, solid deposits of minerals that form in the kidneys. They can block the ureters, causing pain and discomfort. Stones are also a common cause of kidney failure in men and women.

Males are more likely to get kidney stones than females

There are a few reasons for this. One is that men are more likely to have testosterone than women, and some studies suggest that testosterone increases the rate of urinary oxalate excretion, which promotes stone formation.

Another reason is that testosterone can increase the activity of the enzyme glycolic acid oxidase, which is a part of the oxalate-producing pathway.

This leads to more oxalate and less citrate in the urine, which also promotes stone formation.

Several small human investigations have found higher levels of testosterone in stone-forming males than in a control group. Castration also has been shown to drastically lower the rate of stone formation in stone-induced ethylene glycol-fed rat models.

One particular used representative data from NHANES 2011-2016 to investigate the association between serum testosterone and the prevalence of kidney stones.

Using a logistic regression model, we controlled for covariates that impact kidney stones and testosterone, including age, race, education, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, gout, coronary heart disease, arthritis, angina, heart attack, stroke, smoking, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, and uric acid.

The findings indicate a significant association between serum testosterone and kidney stones in men.

This is especially true in the first quartile of testosterone (OR 1.375, p = 0.016), the second quartile (OR 1.348, p = 0.021), and the third quartile (OR 1.472, p = 0.003), but with a trend toward increased risk for all participants (Table 2). In order to further examine this relationship, more research is needed.

Hypogonadism in Exercising Males

About Hypogonadism

Male sex glands, called the testes in men and the ovaries in women, produce hormones to control secondary sex characteristics. They are also responsible for menstrual cycles and sperm production. The male sex glands can be damaged by injury or disease.

The sex glands are controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This hormone control system is known as the HPG axis, and its dysfunction can cause hypogonadism.

Hypogonadism can develop at any age, and the consequences may vary depending on when it starts. Treatment options include taking testosterone replacement therapy or other medication to boost the hormone level.

In some cases, low testosterone levels can be caused by a rare genetic condition called Kallmann's syndrome. This disorder causes the nerve cells in the hypothalamus to stop producing the sex hormones that stimulate the testes and ovaries. This can make it difficult for a man to have a successful sexual life.

Other factors that can increase the risk of hypogonadism are being overweight, diabetes and taking glucocorticoid (steroids) medications. In addition, cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation can interfere with testosterone production and sperm production.

Among men, the most common form of low testosterone is exercise relative hypogonadism (ERHMC). This condition is often transient and reflects an adjustment within the HPG regulatory axis; such as a new set-point lowering of testosterone.

Testosterone and Lactate Threshold

Lactate threshold is a measure of peak aerobic capacity. It is based on the idea that the rate of lactate production declines with age and may be a good indicator of an individual’s ability to exercise over prolonged periods.

A recent study from Storer et al looked at the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on aerobic capacity in a large randomized clinical trial of mobility-impaired, sedentary older men with low total testosterone levels.

The gas exchange lactate threshold was significantly increased in the group receiving testosterone gel, and was accompanied by a notable decrease in age-related decline in peak oxygen uptake during symptom-limited cycling.

Testosterone is an androgen that promotes growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) production in the liver, thereby stimulating anabolic signaling pathways.

It is also involved in the regulation of muscle protein turnover, which leads to increases in net protein accretion and hypertrophy.

The endocrine effects of testosterone are mediated through its interaction with androgen receptors (AR). AR, which is a homodimer, binds to androgen response elements (ARE) present in the nucleus.

This results in a series of intra-cellular signaling cascades that enhance the production and release of AR ligands; thus promoting the adaptive muscle response to RE.

Resistance exercises stimulate the release of testosterone, GH and IGF-1 from satellite cells in the muscle; these hormones then activate a variety of different signaling pathways to enhance the muscle’s ability to adapt to exercise. These mechanisms include:

  • Increased RBC formation
  • Stimulation of tissue capillarity
  • Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, which enhances the uptake of oxygen by exercising muscles.

Erthrogenic Effects of Testosterone on Blood Counts

As with most hormones, blood cells respond to changes in circulating testosterone. Among other things, testosterone increases erythrocyte counts and leukocyte and neutrophil counts. It also increases monocyte and lymphocyte counts.

Erythrocyte count and lymphocyte count increases from testosterone treatment are associated with on-treatment serum testosterone concentrations, which is consistent across dose groups.

There is also evidence for an association between on-treatment free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin, with numerically larger increases in the higher-dose groups.

Using testosterone to increase androgen levels has several benefits for men with low levels of testosterone, including:

  • Improved muscle mass and strength,
  • Lower body fat and increased libido.
  • In addition, testosterone may help prevent certain health conditions such as prostate cancer and osteoporosis.

Does Testosterone Increase Endurance?

Endurance is a term used to describe the ability of your cardiorespiratory system to sustain physical activity over long periods.

It includes aerobic endurance, which involves the heart and lungs, and local muscle endurance, which is the strength and ability of a particular muscle group to resist fatigue.

Short-term strength and power-based training boosts testosterone briefly, but the effect isn't lasting, says endocrinologist John Anawalt, M.D., who specializes in low-testosterone conditions.

Resistance training can also boost testosterone, but you need to be smart about how much weight you lift and how long you work out for.

The most effective way to increase your testosterone is to incorporate short, intense interval workouts into your regimen. This type of training has been linked to a larger testosterone response than traditional endurance training, Anawalt says. 

Running Can Lower Your Testosterone Levels

Long-term, low intensity endurance training can cause your body to produce less of the hormone. That's because it triggers an increase in cortisol, which can hinder your body's ability to make testosterone.

Testosterone is necessary for maintaining bone mass in men, and low testosterone can put runners at a higher risk for stress fractures.

When done properly, short-term, moderate intensity training can stimulate testosterone production. This is ideal for athletes looking to build muscle mass and strength.

Does Weightlifting Increase Testosterone?

Testosterone is a male “sex hormone” that regulates libido, erectile function, sperm production, muscle mass and bone density. It also plays a role in your body’s ability to repair itself and adapt to your exercise load.

Low testosterone levels can cause a number of negative symptoms including fatigue, reduced muscle mass, low libido and erectile dysfunction. 

Getting enough exercise is important for healthy testosterone levels. Studies have found that a moderate, consistent exercise regimen is associated with a stable elevation in testosterone levels.

Some exercises, such as high intensity interval training (HIIT), are better at boosting testosterone than others.

The type of exercise you choose and how much of it you do have a big impact on your testosterone levels.

Resistance exercise, particularly weight lifting, increases testosterone in the short term by stimulating the release of free serum testosterone.

This type of testosterone can be freely used by the body to build lean muscle and help you burn fat cells more efficiently.

In addition, resistance exercise has a positive effect on other hormones in the body that are linked to testosterone, such as estrogen and insulin.

To maximize your benefits, be sure to include all major muscle groups in each workout. Focus on heavy and compound moves like squats, deadlifts and bench presses.

HIIT and Testosterone

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a form of exercise that alternates between short periods of intense physical activity and long recovery phases. It burns more fat than traditional cardio, and it elevates your metabolism for 24 to 48 hours after you’ve finished exercising.

HIIT Increases Cortisol and Free Testosterone More Than Steady-State Endurance Exercise

Researchers from the University of North Carolina studied the impact of high-intensity interval exercise (IE) and steady-state endurance exercise on male participants.

Both workouts lasted 45 minutes and had similar work output, but the high-intensity interval group saw a much more pronounced rise in free testosterone than the steady-state endurance group!

This study is the first to look at the effects of a single HIIT session on testosterone and cortisol. The results suggest that a single HIIT session increases both hormones, which then decline below baseline values and return to baseline after 24 h.

This study provides a better understanding of the acute endocrine response to a single HIIT session and may be valuable for physicians and trainers in exercise prescription.

However, future well-designed randomized controlled trials with larger sample size, diet control, adjusting for plasma volume changes after HIIT, as well as including women and controlling for the menstrual cycle phase, are needed to further confirm these findings.

Does Testosterone Promote Muscle Growth?

Testosterone is best known as a male sex hormone, but it also plays a key role in numerous other critical processes. It helps generate red blood cells, distribute body fat, preserve bone density, and increase muscle mass and strength. 

Testosterone helps build muscle by boosting protein synthesis. It also helps your body use amino acids to create protein building blocks called protein peptides.

Athletes who use anabolic steroids or testosterone often report that their muscles grow quickly when they take the hormones, but that doesn't necessarily mean that high levels of testosterone are a good thing for muscle gain. In fact, there's a lot of evidence that suggests the opposite.

Researchers found that men who gained the most muscle after 12 weeks of weight training weren't those with the highest testosterone levels, but those with the most androgen receptors.

Androgen receptors are what help make testosterone work in the first place, by signaling muscle tissue to increase the rate at which new muscle protein is laid down.

Androgen receptors are also important for allowing the body to use and retain the testosterone that it does have, so the more you have of these receptors, the better your chances of making the most of that testosterone.

Increasing the amount of androgen receptors in your body isn't something that can be achieved by simply taking a testosterone supplement, however. It's going to take a significant amount of effort on your part.

This includes not only the supplement, but a commitment to your workouts and ensuring that you get enough sleep and rest.

How does Testosterone Increase Muscle Protein Synthesis?

When testosterone is introduced into your system, it is converted to a form called 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT binds to the androgen receptor.

DHT can then bind to certain nucleotide sequences in the DNA of cells, causing them to increase their transcription of genes that are involved in androgen effects.

In response to exercise, testosterone increases the levels of different signaling pathways that regulate muscle growth and protein synthesis.

This leads to increased net protein accretion and hypertrophy. These hormone responses are mediated by several intramuscular and extramuscular factors.

For example, hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) activate a series of signaling pathways in the muscle to enhance cellular amino acid uptake, increase muscle protein synthesis and facilitate muscle fiber growth.

Does Riding a Bicycle Affect Testosterone?

Testosterone, a natural male hormone, promotes protein synthesis resulting in stronger muscles. It also increases hematocrit (blood volume), which in turn helps a cyclist recover from hard training or racing periods.

Whether you're a top rider or not, bringing your natural testosterone levels up to normal can help you be a better cyclist and improve your cycling performance in other ways.

Excessive Cycling Reduces Testosterone

Long distance endurance exercise like marathon running, road cycling and triathlon can have a negative effect on your testosterone levels. This is because these exercises are known to break down your muscles and lower the amount of testosterone in your body. 

Does Military Fitness Reduce Testosterone?

It is important for a Soldier to be fit in order to complete their training.

Testosterone is an essential hormone for building muscle, enhancing bone mass and maintaining a healthy body weight. A low level of testosterone can lead to various problems such as depression and anxiety.

Overtraining Lowers T Levels

Athletes who are involved in intense workouts tend to have lower T levels. This decrease in T levels can cause a number of problems including fatigue, weakness, low libido and reduced bones mass.

Overtraining syndrome can often be missed by athletes, recreational and professional alike but can reduce mental and physical performance.

Music and Testosterone

Research has shown that music can help reduce anxiety, blood pressure and pain as well as improve sleep quality, mood and mental alertness. It can also increase oxytocin, a hormone that increases feelings of pleasure and makes you feel more energetic.

A study showed that men with high T levels enjoy music designed for "unsophisticated" tastes, such as rock. This suggests that testosterone levels may be one small part of what determines a person's musical preference.

Testosterone is one of the most important and powerful hormones in the body. It stimulates muscle growth, improves memory, and enhances your mood.

The study found that listening to certain types of music, such as Mozart and Gregorian monk music, reduced testosterone in men but increased it in females. This is because these types of music have a rhythm that can help the body release hormones such as oxytocin.

The same study found that listening to a piece of classical music, such as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, improved performance in both men and women. The results also show that listening to classical music can reduce stress and help you relax.

Acupuncture and Testosterone

In a recent study, researchers found that acupuncture treatments improve androgen levels in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The condition is caused by excess androgens that lead to acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual cycles and infertility.

Acupuncture can help improve testosterone levels by stimulating the pituitary gland to produce more lutenizing hormone, which stimulates cells in the testes to make testosterone.

This can help to reduce erectile dysfunction and increase sexual satisfaction for men who are experiencing lower testosterone levels.

Treating testosterone deficiency with acupuncture is a safe and effective treatment for men. This is because acupuncture can boost a man’s natural testosterone levels, without the side effects of synthetic drugs like testosterone supplementation.

Improves Sleep and Wakefulness

Acupuncture has been shown to improve both sleep quality and quantity in men with low testosterone levels. It can reset a man’s circadian rhythm and hormonal clock, which is necessary to achieve optimal testosterone levels.

Better Sex and Fertility

Infertility is a common problem for couples. Acupuncture can help men conceive more easily since it can enhance sperm quality, quantity and motility. Moreover, regular acupuncture can promote blood flow to the reproductive area and improve menstrual cycles.

The Relationship Between Masturbation and Testosterone

Masturbation is a sexual activity that is common among both males and females. In fact, 95% of men and 89% of women have masturbated at some point in their lives!

However, some men are worried that masturbating could reduce their testosterone levels. This is especially true for people diagnosed with male hypogonadism, a condition that causes low testosterone.

Testosterone is a hormone that helps males develop an erection and improve their overall sexual performance. It is produced by the testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands in both males and females.

In addition to helping men get an erection, testosterone also stimulates muscle growth. It is a hormone that is crucial for men’s health and can help them perform better in sports and other activities.

The relationship between testosterone and masturbation is not completely understood, but some studies have found that it can increase blood levels of the hormone. A study in 2003, for example, measured a man’s hormone levels before and after he experienced a masturbation-induced orgasm.

Another study compared testosterone levels before and after a 3-week period of abstinence from masturbation. It found that testosterone levels were higher after the abstinence period, but it was not clear why.

The relationship between masturbation and testosterone is complex, but it does not seem to have any long-term negative effects on a person’s overall testosterone level. For men who are concerned about their testosterone levels, a doctor can prescribe replacement therapy to help raise their levels.

Does Edging Increase Testosterone

Some people claim that edging increases testosterone levels, but there is no scientific evidence to support this. Instead, edging is said to prolong penetrative sex and improve sexual pleasure for partners.

It can also help deal with premature ejaculation by delaying or stopping sex until you are ready for it. It also retrains your body to be more satisfied with sexual intercourse.

If you use edging for longer periods, you may find yourself becoming more tired than usual, and it might not be as pleasurable as it used to be. This is because all the stimulation, followed by pauses and repetitions, can dull your penis’ physical sensation over time.

Another risk of edging is that it might make you less able to reach orgasm and ejaculate. This could affect your health in the long run, and you might need to check with your doctor to make sure it is safe for you.

The dangers of edging can be minimized by being aware of your body’s sensitivity to the touch and by learning when you’re about to reach orgasm. You can do this by reducing your arousal level or pulling out from your partner for a few moments, so that you can get to the point of feeling arouse before continuing sex.

Does Testosterone Help With Erectile Dysfunction?

The hormone testosterone is important to your overall health, as it plays a role in muscle building and bone strength. It also helps regulate your body fat and energy levels.

It serves as a fuel to power your sex drive, which is why low testosterone levels can lead to a lack of erections. While it’s not clear that testosterone is the only factor in ED, there is evidence that the hormone is associated with a reduced ability to achieve and maintain erections.

Testosterone is produced in your brain. It travels to the scrotum and the penis to activate sexual receptors.

Your penis is filled with a fibrous membrane called the tunica albuginea. When your brain signals it to relax, it allows blood to flow through the chamber.

In some men, this is enough to produce an erection. But for others, it’s not.

There are many factors that can affect your ability to achieve and maintain erections, including injury or disease in the pelvic area, cardiovascular issues, and other medical conditions such as diabetes and obesity.

If you have a problem getting and keeping an erection, talk with your doctor about treatment options. There are medications that can increase the flow of blood to your penis and make it easier to get an erection.

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can be used to treat low testosterone levels and improve a man’s ability to achieve and maintain an erection. When testosterone levels are restored to optimum levels, men can experience increased libido, a stronger sex drive, and firmer erections.

Testicle Massage and Testosterone

The testicles play a vital role in male sexual health. They produce sperm and testosterone, which helps boost libido and improve erections. They also help regulate the temperature in and around your body.

Regular testicle massage can increase blood flow to the area, which improves sperm production and a man’s overall health and well-being. It can also prevent varicocele, which is a condition that occurs when there’s a lack of circulation in the testicles.

Some men may be uncomfortable with ball massage, but there are ways to make it more pleasurable. The key is to find a technique that suits your partner’s sensitivity and preferences.

Adding some toy play is another fun way to give your lover a massage, though you should talk about it with them beforehand. You can use toys like a suction cup, or even a sucky stick to add more pleasure.

How to Perform a Testicle Massage

The most basic method of massaging your partner’s balls is to cup each testicle in your hands and gently pull up and down. Repeat a couple of times and increase the time gradually.

This can be done with or without oil, depending on your preference. It’s best to use a fragrance-free, preferably organic oil, such as jojoba, coconut or olive oil.

Does Testosterone Make You Aggressive?

Traditionally, the answer to this question has been yes, but researchers are beginning to realize that testosterone levels are not as straightforward as they once were. Moreover, it is not just testosterone that causes certain behaviours; other hormones and social contexts can also play a role.

Aggression: It's not just about physical violence

As the name suggests, testosterone is a hormone that affects your mood and emotions, specifically anger. As a result, many people assume that having more of it will make you angrier, but that isn't always the case.

A new study has refuted the preconception that testosterone makes you egocentric, risky and aggressive. The study, conducted at the universities of Zurich and Royal Holloway London, tested 120 subjects on a negotiation task.

In this task, both men and women were offered real money by their negotiating partner, and the offer was either fair or unfair. The fairer the offer, the less likely the negotiating partner would refuse it.

This finding supports the status theory that testosterone promotes nonaggressive behavior when it is appropriate for increasing one's social status, rather than being associated with aggressive and antisocial behaviour.

However, the theory does not explain how testosterone induces a prosocial response to aggression.

It is therefore important to investigate whether testosterone differentially increases status-relevant aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors. In addition, it will be important to examine the underlying neural circuitry that is involved in the process.

Does Testosterone Influence Social Behaviour?

Modern society has taken a negative view of testosterone, blaming it for aggressive, boorish or simply bad behaviour in men.

Although there is a lot of evidence to support a relationship between testosterone and aggression, research into whether testosterone also affects social behaviour remains unclear.

This is partly because the relationship between testosterone and male aggressiveness has not been studied in a fully controlled manner, and because testosterone and aggression are not regulated by identical biological mechanisms (van Anders & Watson, 2006).

The status theory of testosterone suggests that, in the context of an existing and hierarchically organized group, testosterone will flexibly promote either pro-social or anti-social behaviors depending on their instrumental value to gain or maintain status.

This theory assumes that, in situations where an individual’s status is threatened, testosterone will lead to reactive aggression and indiscriminately increase impulsive behavior; whereas testosterone will flexibly promote prosocial behaviors that are appropriate for maintaining status, such as altruistic generosity.

Researchers tested the status hypothesis by asking participants to play a modified version of the Ultimatum Game in which, having accepted or rejected an offer from the proposer, they had the opportunity to punish or reward the proposer at a proportionate cost to themselves. 

It was found that participants treated with testosterone were more likely to punish the proposer and that higher testosterone levels were specifically associated with increased punishment of proposers who made unfair offers.

The results of that study provide strong evidence that testosterone causes a shift in the balance between impulsive and altruistic behavior.

This is particularly important in a scenario where participants are faced with an uncertain outcome.

These changes in behaviour are not due to the testosterone alone, but to the interaction of testosterone with other hormones and personality traits as well as with brain activity associated with processing social information.

Does Testosterone Make You Smarter?

While testosterone is most known for enhancing sexual desire, research suggests it also affects brain function. Men with higher levels of testosterone in their bodies show improved cognitive skills, such as verbal memory and spatial memory.

Testosterone has been linked to impulsivity and risk-taking behaviours, but a new study finds it can also enhance fluid intelligence.

The researchers, from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and the University of Chicago’s Department of Comparative Human Development found that testosterone levels were associated with higher fluid IQ in both men and women.

The hormone’s relationship with risky behaviour is not surprising; testosterone boosts competitiveness, dominance and reduces fear.

But the findings also suggest that testosterone may influence a person’s choice of career and financial risk aversion, even if it doesn’t directly affect IQ.

Traders with more testosterone on the trading floor attack their day with vigor and risk-taking on their mind. But if they have higher levels of cortisol, a stress hormone often found in high levels during long-term stress, they tend to take more caution and become less successful.

The study also found that males who had received a dose of testosterone performed more impulsively on the kind of tests usually given for college entrance and could commit more errors when making important decisions.

The researchers say this is because testosterone makes the parts of the brain responsible for impulsive decision-making a bit more resistant to regulation by other parts of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex.

Testosterone and Memory

The hormone testosterone is known to boost memory and cognitive function in both men and women. But low testosterone can lead to a number of symptoms, including brain fog.

Testosterone levels naturally decrease with age. That's why older people should pay attention to their levels if they experience symptoms.

Some people who have low testosterone may also have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease or dementia.

Researchers are now exploring the link between testosterone and memory. One study found that patients with prostate cancer that needed androgen deprivation therapy for treatment had worse verbal memory than healthy controls.

Another study found that a single injection of testosterone caused memory loss in elderly men. A biweekly injection also caused memory decline.

Research has shown that estradiol, a metabolite of testosterone, countered the negative effect of testosterone on cognitive performance in elderly men.

It is unclear how this mechanism works. Nevertheless, it appears to be an important factor.

Studies have also shown that prenatal concentrations of testosterone can affect spatial abilities, especially mental rotation (Linn and Petersen, 1985).

The association between testosterone and spatial abilities is curvilinear and sex-dependent. In women higher testosterone is associated with better mental rotation, while in men lower testosterone is associated with better spatial abilities.

Does Testosterone Influence Spatial Cognition?

Sex hormones are known to influence spatial cognition and hippocampal function, but this is one of the areas of science that remains relatively unexplored.

Although a few studies suggest that prenatally transferred testosterone (via twins) may be linked to mental rotation, this has yet to be tested in the laboratory and it seems highly unlikely that this will be true given the small effect size.

The etiology of spatial ability is still unclear and is mainly the product of behavioral and environmental factors. Biological investigations have concentrated on genetic and hormonal effects and have so far found only small sex differences, or no sex differences at all.

A new study suggests that sex differences in spatial reasoning are not caused by the same factors that drive other cognitive abilities, like working memory and attention. Instead, they occur as a side effect of sex.

This could explain why men outstrip women on spatial tasks and why they outnumber women in science and engineering fields today. 

Cashdan and her colleagues looked at eleven species that exhibited sex differences in spatial cognition. They surveyed the territorial ranges of the males and females and then looked at their spatial behavior.

They found that, regardless of the size of their territories or how long their ranges extended, males consistently outperformed females on all measures of spatial reasoning.

This is important, as it suggests that sex differences are not caused by the same environmental factors that cause other cognitive abilities to differ between males and females.

Does Low Testosterone Cause Fatigue?

Fatigue is a common problem for many men, especially as they age. It can be caused by a number of factors, including lack of sleep and a poor diet. Fatigue could also be the result of low T.

The best way to determine if you are suffering from fatigue is to get your blood tested for testosterone levels. If your doctor finds that you have low testosterone, they can help you find a treatment to address your symptoms and improve your quality of life.

Testosterone helps keep you strong, builds muscles and strengthens bones. It also helps maintain sexual health.

In men, low testosterone can affect everything from the amount of energy you have to your mood and mental focus. It may also lead to weight gain, enlarged breast tissue, and a decreased sense of well-being.

Erectile dysfunction and a lowered sex drive are both commonly associated with low testosterone. Other possible signs of low testosterone include weight gain, muscle loss, a weakened immune system, and a decreased ability to build bones and muscle mass.

A healthy diet can also help boost testosterone, since it is a key source of the hormone. A diet that is high in protein, a good balance of carbohydrates and fats, and is free from too much sugar can improve your testosterone levels.

Exercise is another helpful way to increase testosterone levels. Keeping up with a regular workout routine can increase your strength, boost your mood, and give you more energy.

Does Testosterone Help You Sleep?

Low testosterone levels can cause a number of symptoms, including difficulty sleeping and mood changes. In men, they can also affect sexual function and desire, energy levels, fertility, weight gain, and muscle mass.

Testosterone is produced naturally in the body during puberty and reaches a normal level by age 30. After that, it gradually decreases over time.

Testosterone Levels Are High During Sleep

When you’re sleeping, your body produces natural testosterone. It happens during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage, which is the fourth of four stages that occur in a night’s sleep cycle.

REM is the most important sleep stage for hormone production, and your body naturally produces more testosterone during this time.

If you’re not getting enough REM sleep or have frequent nighttime awakenings from sleep apnea, your testosterone levels can decline over time.

What’s the Link Between Low Testosterone and Sleep?

It’s believed that low testosterone causes poor sleep. This is because the hormone plays a key role in regulating your sleep and helping you feel well rested.

You can treat low testosterone with hormone replacement therapy, but it’s not always the best approach.

That’s because treating the underlying cause of sleep problems — such as obesity or sleep apnea — is usually much more effective, according to researchers.

If you suffer from poor sleep and are experiencing symptoms of low testosterone, talk to your doctor about what you can do to improve your sleep.

Getting more consistent sleep is one of the best things you can do to protect your health. 

Does Testosterone Make You Taller?

Several hormones influence growth during puberty, including growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and testosterone. However, the most important factor in determining your peak height is genetics.

The most common hormonal treatment for height loss is growth hormone therapy, which stimulates GH and IGF-1 production in the pituitary gland.

This treatment is used mainly to treat children with growth hormone deficiency, which causes shortness of stature during childhood and adolescence.

A study has found that a combination of iron and vitamin A is as effective as hormonal therapy over a 6 month treatment period.

Another hormone that can affect your height is estrogen, which is released by the ovaries during puberty and also influences bone growth.

During this period, your body grows faster and longer, making you look taller than you are.

Testosterone levels are also important for muscle mass and strength. The hormone promotes protein synthesis, which helps build muscle. It also reduces the amount of fat that accumulates around your muscles.

You can boost your testosterone levels by exercising regularly, consuming a healthy diet, and getting enough sleep. It is also important to avoid foods that can hinder your body’s ability to produce testosterone.

Read more about height and testosterone, here.

Does Testosterone Make Your Voice Deeper?

The answer to this question depends on your age and body build. Male voices usually deepen up to an octave, while females move about three tones lower.

During puberty, testosterone affects the vocal cords and thickens them. This makes the voice sound deeper and more masculine, as well as easier to control.

It’s not just the voice that’s affected by testosterone: The larynx (the hole in your throat) also grows bigger during this time, which can lead to a “crack” or “break” in your voice. This is a temporary symptom, but it’s not something you have to worry about.

A boy’s larynx is more sensitive to the male sex hormone testosterone than a girl’s, so it will be bigger. The change can cause some squeaking and cracking in your voice, but it’s only for a short while.

Does Testosterone Increase Hair Growth?

Testosterone is a hormone that helps with muscle growth, sperm production, and sexual function. It is also produced in the ovaries and adrenal glands of women.

When men reach a certain age, their bodies tend to produce less of this sex hormone. This can result in a number of side effects.

One of the most common is balding. Baldness is caused by genetics and fluctuating testosterone levels in the body.

Male pattern baldness is the most common form of balding and affects most men who are over 40 years old.

Another type of baldness is called female pattern baldness. It affects women who are over 40 years old and has been linked to fluctuations in testosterone in the body.

Many men and women have questions about whether testosterone causes balding. It can be difficult to know if your thinning hair is related to your hormone therapy and whether or not you will need to make changes to your diet, workout routine, or medication.

The best way to find out is to speak with a doctor or trichologist. They can run tests and do a scalp evaluation to identify the cause of your thinning hair.

While testosterone may not cause dramatic hair growth to appear overnight, it can help you grow a fuller beard and more facial hair. Depending on your body and what kind of hair you have, this can be an exciting change.

Does Testosterone Cause Gynecomastia?

More than half of newborns have enlarged breast buds due to their mother's estrogen levels. The swollen breast tissue usually goes away within a few weeks of birth.

When hormone levels change during puberty, more than half of teenage boys have some degree of enlarged breast tissue. These changes occur because of fluctuating hormone levels, including drops in testosterone and surges in estrogen.

These enlargements will typically go away over time, but in some cases they may persist for several years. In these cases, medical treatment is usually prescribed to correct the problem.

Some medications and treatments are known to affect the balance of hormones, and they can contribute to gynecomastia in men.

This imbalance may be caused directly or indirectly by the drugs themselves, or they may be causing an underlying endocrine disorder.

Other medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism or malnutrition can also increase the ratio of estrogen to testosterone, leading to gynecomastia. In these situations, a blood test to determine the level of these hormones is recommended.

If a doctor believes that an underlying medical condition is causing the gynecomastia, then he or she will order a physical exam and a series of laboratory tests to evaluate for other problems.

Ultimately, these tests will be able to identify the root cause of the gynecomastia.

The earlier the gynecomastia is diagnosed and treated, the more likely it will be to resolve without any permanent damage. That's why it's so important to schedule a consultation with a doctor when you first notice the symptoms.

How Does Testosterone Affect Bone Growth?

Bones are formed by bone-forming osteoblasts, which are sensitive to hormone signals like testosterone and estrogen. They also respond to minerals like zinc and cytokines, which are cell-signaling proteins.

When males go through androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, testosterone levels can decrease, which increases the risk of osteoporosis. Getting the right level of testosterone is important for healthy bone growth and strength.

Osteoporosis Causes

The main causes of osteoporosis are estrogen deficiency from menopause and low testosterone due to aging or certain medical conditions. The best way to prevent osteoporosis is by addressing the risk factors that you can control at an early age.

Exercise to Build Muscle and Lose Weight

You can use resistance exercise to build muscle mass and lose weight. Increasing muscle mass may strengthen bones and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

Testosterone Increases Bone Mineral Density

Researchers are still learning how testosterone affects bone growth. However, research shows that a higher level of testosterone can reduce the risk of bone density issues and osteoporosis later in life.

Does Low Testosterone Cause Joint Pain?

Testosterone is a male sex hormone that fuels energy, builds muscles, and helps maintain bone health as you age. But as you age, the amount of testosterone in your body can change dramatically.

Its deficiency can cause a range of issues, including weight gain, loss of muscle mass, difficulty managing your weight, and weak bones. This imbalance can also increase the risk of osteoporosis, a bone disease that increases your risk of fractures and breaks.

Bone Health

Studies show that testosterone stimulates the release of osteoblast cells, which are primarily responsible for bone health. These cells work to strengthen and build bone by synthesizing collagen and releasing calcium and mineral deposits.


The cartilage at the ends of your bones is a cushion that prevents friction between your joints, making movement easier and less painful. If your cartilage is damaged, it can lead to achy joints and inflammation.

Achieving balanced levels of testosterone can significantly improve your general well-being and reduce chronic joint pain. It can also help you lose unwanted weight and enhance your bone density, both of which are important for maintaining joint health.


There are more than 100 types of arthritis, with two of the most common being osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions can cause joint pain, stiffness, and swelling.

How Testosterone Affects Cardiovascular Health

As men age, testosterone levels drop. This decline, known as "andropause," is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems.

Some studies suggest that testosterone might help lower the risk of heart disease, but others say it might cause it. There is also evidence that it raises blood pressure and contributes to insulin resistance, which are harmful for the cardiovascular system.

Low Testosterone and Heart Disease

The decline in bioavailable testosterone concentrations (that is, testosterone that is actually circulating in the body) starts to happen around age 40.

In the past, researchers suspected that this decrease in testosterone might cause cardiovascular problems like heart attacks and strokes in men.

However, this is a complex question. Scientists have to take into account the many factors that influence heart disease and hormones, such as age, family history, gender, and lifestyle.

Obesity is another significant cardiovascular risk factor, especially in overweight men. Research shows that obesity increases the risk of diabetes, which itself can lead to heart disease and other health problems.

Testosterone can improve artery function by increasing blood flow and strengthening the inner lining of the arteries. It can also reduce high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which can decrease the risk of heart disease.

Learn more about testosterone and cardiovascular health.

Testosterone As a Modulator of Vascular Behavior

As a vasorelaxant, testosterone increases the blood pressure through its relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle as well as through inhibition of cardiac cAMP-phosphodiesterases.

It also improves nitric oxide (NO) production and reactivity to endothelium-derived NO by activating nNOS in endothelial cells.

Testosterone can modulate vascular behavior through direct effects on endothelial, macrophage, and cardiomyocyte cells or indirectly by nongenomic actions on plasma-membrane receptors and channels.

It stimulates nitric oxide and vasodilation, inhibition of cell death, inhibition of platelet aggregation and reduction in lipid accumulation by activating a NO-producing enzyme called neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

Atherosclerosis is a major cause of cardiovascular diseases and is often accompanied by high blood pressure, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and obesity.

In hypogonadal men with CVDs, low serum testosterone levels are associated with a higher risk of atherosclerosis [105, 106].

Atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of fatty streaks and thickening of the vascular wall that leads to obstruction of blood flow and increased risk of heart disease.

Testosterone suppresses atherosclerotic lesion formation in obese mice with testicular feminization, independently of aromatase activity in endothelial cells.

Testosterone can also improve endothelial function through regulation of NO production by activating androgen receptors in endothelial cells.

It can also decrease the release of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-10.

It has also been shown that it can reduce the expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in the endothelium.

Can Colorectal Cancer Cause Low Testosterone?

Your colon and rectum (or lower part of your large intestine) work together to absorb water and food, pass waste products from the body, and help control your weight. They also protect your body from harmful bacteria, parasites and viruses that can cause gastrointestinal illnesses.

Polyps are abnormal growths that can form in your colon or rectum, which can lead to cancer. Regular screening tests can find polyps before they develop into cancer, allowing them to be removed before it’s too late.

Colorectal cancer can be caused by multiple factors, including a family history of the disease or diets high in red and processed meats. Eating a healthy diet and getting at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity every day can lower your risk.

Testosterone and Colorectal Cancer

It has been reported that low testosterone levels in males increase their risk of colorectal cancer, although it has not been proven to cause the disease. Several studies have shown that low testosterone is linked to an increased risk of CRC, but more research is needed to understand why this happens.

The sex hormones estrogen and progesterone have been shown to protect against colorectal cancer in women.

This protective effect may be based on the activation of specific receptors called mARs which are found only in colon cancer cells and are not present in normal colon tissue.

Sex hormones are also thought to influence the development of gastric cancer. In a large prospective study, men with higher sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations had a correspondingly greater risk of gastric cancer but a lower risk of colorectal and esophageal cancer.

In addition, a recent study suggests that testosterone in combination with carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) may enhance tumor screening.

These researchers measured the level of unbound testosterone, estradiol and CEA in patients with histologically confirmed CRC before and after surgery to determine whether the use of these biomarkers could be beneficial for tumor screening.

These findings suggest that testosterone in combination with other sex hormones may enhance tumor screening, particularly in patients with normal CEA levels. However, more long-term double-blinded clinical trials are needed to confirm this relationship. 

Testosterone and Its Dimers Alter tRNA Morphology in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Sex hormones, such as testosterone, estrogen and DHT, are essential for sexual development.

Testosterone levels in the testes are regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis through the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

In prostate cancer, DHT-bound androgen receptors (ARs) form dimers that bind to androgen response elements and promote transcription of target genes.

Similarly, ERas bound by extracellular estrogens activate transcription of target genes by interacting with other transcription factors or directly binding to ER response elements in breast cancer cells.

To understand how sex hormones and their receptors drive tRNA expression in prostate and breast cancer, researchers examined tRNA morphology in cell lines of these tissues.

It was found that tRNA halves were abundantly expressed in AR+ LNCaP-FGC cells, whereas tRNA halves were not commonly present in the ER+ DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines.

Moreover, the research team found that the abundance of tRNA halves was correlated with sex hormone sensitivity and with the presence of ERa and AR in the cells. 

They also discovered that sex hormone depletion, culturing cells in hormone-free medium and adding sex hormones to the cell culture medium decreased tRNA halves.

In addition, this showed that the AR mutation ARLmon/Y disrupted the ligand-binding domain (LBD) dimerization of the AR.

This disrupts multiple receptor functions, including ligand and DNA binding, interactions with coregulators as well as transactivation.

In addition, it disrupts expression of HSD17B3 (the enzyme that converts androstenedione to testosterone), a key enzyme involved in androgen metabolism. These observations suggest that disruption of AR-LBD dimerization may be a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

Learn more, here.

Can Hemochromatosis Affect Testosterone?

Hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder that makes the body store too much iron. It can cause serious health problems, including liver disease and heart problems. Hemochromatosis can also reduce testosterone levels, which is why some doctors recommend testosterone replacement therapy for people with hemochromatosis.

Everyone gets two sets of genes - one from their father and one from their mother. If both of your parents have the faulty HFE gene, you are at risk for developing hemochromatosis.

Most cases of hereditary hemochromatosis are autosomal recessive. This means you need to inherit 2 copies of the faulty gene from both parents to develop it.

If you have one copy of the faulty gene from each parent, your chance of having hemochromatosis is 25%. If you have both copies of the faulty gene, there is a 1 in 4 chance that you will have hemochromatosis.

Early detection and treatment can prevent complications of hemochromatosis. Tests that can help identify hemochromatosis include ferritin and transferrin saturation tests. If there is concern for liver or heart damage, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used.

Treating Hemochromatosis

The main treatment for hereditary hemochromatosis is called therapeutic phlebotomy. It involves removing a pint or so of blood on a regular basis until the iron level in the body is back to normal levels.

In some men with hereditary hemochromatosis who have hypogonadism, testosterone and sex hormone levels can return to normal after iron depletion therapy.

However, it is important to note that this recovery is often not complete and patients need to continue hormonal replacement therapy to optimize their testosterone level and sexual function.

Sickle Cell Trait and Testosterone Deficiency

Sickle cell trait is an autosomal dominant disorder due to mutation in the b-globin gene on chromosome 11 which causes sickle hemoglobin S (SCD).

Homozygous males have delayed somatic and sexual development, and they are more prone to priapism, a painful erection of the penis without sexual stimulation or desire and detumescence following ejaculation.

They also have reduced testicular index and indices of semen quality, suggesting that hypogonadism is associated with SCD.


In men with SCD, hypogonadism is the result of decreased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL).

The reduction in testosterone among male patients with SCD indicates that their Leydig cells do not respond to LH in the same way as they do in healthy males.

Testosterone is a potent steroid, which promotes physiologic relaxation of penile arteries and cavernous tissue, inhibits neuronal NOS and reduces phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) catalytic activity in the penis, the primary players in penile erection (47-51).

Increased testosterone reverses downregulated protein expression and cGMP accumulation in the spermatogenic system, thus reducing priapism.

HU-Treated TSCM Have Reduced Epididymal Weight and Stored Sperm Density

In the steroidogenic compartments of HU-treated TSCM, plasma testosterone concentrations were significantly lower than in controls on days 56 and 58 of treatment, whereas stored sperm density was 69 percent and 95% less, respectively, among HU-treated TSCM compared to controls (treatment x time interaction. 

Does Testosterone Affect White Blood Cells?

Testosterone is a hormone made mainly in the testes (part of the male reproductive system). It helps with growth and development of muscle and other body tissues.

Testosterone also tells your bone marrow to make more red blood cells, which carry oxygen. This increases your risk for a condition called erythrocytosis.

High hematocrit values, also called red blood cell concentrations, are an important indicator of cardiovascular health and can predict the likelihood of developing coronary artery disease or heart attack.

Abnormally high hematocrit values can be the result of many factors including sleep apnea syndrome, smoking and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT).

Increased Circulating Leukocyte Counts, but not Lymphocyte, Basophil or Eosinophil Count

Testosterone treatment significantly increased the total circulating leukocyte counts as well as the counts of absolute neutrophils and monocytes.

These results suggest that testosterone likely promotes the differentiation of a multipotential hematopoietic progenitor into the myeloid lineage.

The safety and therapeutic implications of these findings need further investigation. 

Does High Testosterone Reduce Hypertension?

Despite the widespread belief that testosterone causes hypertension, research is challenging these outdated assumptions.

Testosterone is a hormone that makes your body grow and build muscle. It also helps you eat less and gain more energy.

Men with lower levels of testosterone are more likely to have high blood pressure and develop cardiovascular disease. It may also be linked to diabetes, obesity, and depression.

The hormone is secreted in the testicles and ovaries, and it can be found in your blood.

Males with low testosterone are more likely to have diabetes and high blood pressure, as well as a higher risk of heart attack or stroke. They are also more likely to have atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries.

Androgens, which include testosterone, are hormones that act on different parts of the body, including the kidney and arteries.

Androgens can cause vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, vascular remodelling and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

While some studies have found that testosterone can increase your blood pressure, this is usually a minor issue and does not affect most people. If your blood pressure gets too high, talk to your doctor about what you can do to reduce it. 

Does Testosterone Physically Affect the Nucleus Accumens Reward Process?

Testosterone is a hormone produced mainly by the testes in men but also exists in women in smaller amounts. It plays important roles in sexual development and reproduction as well as in bone and muscle mass maintenance, energy production, and mood.

Aggression and Approach Behavior

In humans testosterone is associated with aggression, sensation seeking, hostility, food acquisition, mate-seeking and dominance (Archer 2006; Roberti 2004). It may also lead to high sensitivity to rewards (van Honk et al. 2010).

Dopaminergic System Activation in the Nucleus Accumens during Reward Processing?

Recent research suggests that testosterone acts on the mesolimbic dopaminergic system to increase reward processing.

This increase in dopaminergic system activity is likely to result in increased neural response in the ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens (Packard et al. 1997; Van Honk et al. 2004, 2007).

Affect and Motivationality

In addition, the nucleus accumbens has been linked to threat-related behaviors (e.g., anxiety, aggressive behavior) and reward-related behaviors (e.g., approach behavior). In addition, testosterone can alter the interaction between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala (Hermans et al. 2008).

Despite the association between testosterone and economic risk taking, it is not clear how this link is established.

Different studies have examined the relation between testosterone and competitive bidding behavior in symmetric independent private value first-price auctions. Nevertheless, no correlation was found between circulating testosterone, facial masculinity and 2D:4D and competitiveness. 

Hormones and Depression

During different life stages, our hormones regulate many bodily functions and keep us feeling balanced. However, if your hormone levels get out of balance or start to go down too much, it can affect your mood and lead to depression.

Whether it’s due to pregnancy, menopause or other hormonal fluctuations, you can experience symptoms of depression like change in appetite, decreased pleasure in life, lack of sex drive, fatigue, feeling hopeless or worthless, indecisiveness, insomnia, lethargy and more.

These changes in hormones can also alter the neurotransmitters that control your mood, such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.

Women are more prone to experiencing depression than men, and perimenopause is a time when that may be especially true. During this time, estrogen and progesterone levels fall.

These decreases in hormones can increase feelings of sadness and anxiety, particularly if they are combined with other stressors. Managing your stress and reducing other triggers can help.

Testosterone and Depression

The hormone testosterone has been studied as a possible treatment for men with depression since the 1970s.

Scientists have found that low levels of testosterone are correlated with depressive symptoms, and that treatment with testosterone gel can reduce these symptoms in some men.

Researchers have also found that testosterone can increase the production of serotonin, or the "happy" chemical, which can help alleviate symptoms of depression. The problem is that scientists don't know how this happens.

In order to understand the relationship between testosterone and depression, researchers need to study more about the link. One way to do this is by looking at how testosterone changes the brain in rodent models of depression.

PTSD and Hypogonadism

Testosterone levels are reduced in patients with PTSD and this results in a number of symptomatic changes.

These include a loss of libido and erectile dysfunction, depression, decreased concentration, and irritability. In addition, deficient testosterone affects bone mass and muscle strength.

PTSD and Stress, Involuntary Re-Experiencing Events

Re-experiencing traumatic events can lead to a spike in cortisol production and decreases in testosterone levels. This can happen in the form of re-experiencing distressing memories, bad dreams, or intrusive thoughts that are not fully controlled.

Cognitive Distress

Cognitive distress can also contribute to a negative testosterone response. This is because men with PTSD can have trouble recalling or feeling worthless and this has a negative effect on their mental state and therefore testosterone production.

PTSD and Traumatic Brain Injury

Many combat veterans experience traumatic brain injuries while deployed to war zones. These injuries are very stressful on the mind and can have long-term effects on mental health. PTSD is known to be more common in those who have experienced traumatic brain injury.

PTSD and Testosterone Levels

The most common symptoms of PTSD are re-experiencing stressful events and experiencing feelings of fear and anxiety. These symptoms cause a spike in cortisol production, which cuts off testosterone production and leads to hypogonadism.

PTSD and Testosterone Replacement Therapy

A study to examined the relationship between PTSD and testosterone levels in soldiers who had been deployed to Iraq.

Researchers administered a CO2 inhalation challenge to test soldiers’ cortisol and testosterone reactivity to stress. Soldiers who had a lower reactivity to the CO2 challenge were more likely to develop PTSD after deployment.

Combat Veterans and Low Testosterone

From PTSD to brain injury, military personnel face a range of physical and mental health challenges that put them at risk for low testosterone.

Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, muscle loss and weight gain, depression, fatigue, poor sexual performance, insomnia, and feelings of worthlessness or inadequacy.

Those symptoms can be caused by many things, including certain medicines, thyroid problems, and conditions like congenital defects or damage to the testicles.

Combat veterans are at an even higher risk for testosterone deficiency than men who don't serve in the military, according to a study published in Clinical Endocrinology. They're also more likely to have low levels of vitamin D, which is linked to testosterone production.

Education and Diagnosis

A lack of education about the impact of military service on hormone health and symptom stigma means most veterans don't find out they have low T for years, if ever.

In a Hone Health survey of 400 veterans and active service members with low testosterone, 43% said it took them more than two years of doctors' visits and tests to get diagnosed.

PTSD reduces T level in several ways, from the loss of sleep to a spike in cortisol. Combined with a lack of vitamin D, which is necessary for the body's production of testosterone, PTSD can have a profound effect on men's health.

Injuries from roadside IEDs or blasts of rocket-propelled grenades can wreak havoc on the hormones, too. In a study, up to 80% of men with severe TBI experienced low testosterone after the injury.

Adderall and Testosterone

If you take adderall, you may have trouble with erectile dysfunction (ED). This is a common side effect of this stimulant medication and can affect your ability to get an erection.

ED is usually a result of the constriction of blood vessels in your body. This narrowing can make it harder to get an erection, and it also affects the flow of blood to your penis.

Testosterone is a hormone that helps to promote sexual performance. It's released by the male testes and is also produced in the adrenal glands.

In animal studies, it has been found that amphetamines can interfere with testosterone production. These drugs can suppress testosterone secretion by increasing cyclic AMP production in the testes.

Using this drug may cause you to retain salt and water, causing swelling in your legs or ankles (edema). This condition can be serious and it should be treated immediately by your doctor.

What Are the Effects of Dopamine on Testosterone?

Dopamine influences the secretion of hormones from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland that stimulate testosterone production.

Testosterone is a hormone that plays a role in thought and cognitive functions, emotional responses, muscle and bone growth, sexual performance and desire, metabolism, and much more.

The dopamine-gonadotropin-testosterone axis (DGT) is a feedback loop that involves the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads.

The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which triggers the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH), which in turn stimulates the gonads to produce testosterone.

In adolescence, dopamine levels increase and testosterone is produced rapidly. This leads to increases in testosterone, androgens, and estrogens in blood and tissue.

Male adolescent dopamine neurotransmission and schizophrenia: implications for the adolescent steroid cycle

Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations and delusions due to hyperactivity of subcortical dopaminergic neurons. Adolescent males have a higher risk of schizophrenia than females.

However, the impact of sex steroids on dopamine neurotransmission in adolescence is not well understood.

Researchers found that testosterone increases dopamine metabolic enzymes in the substantia nigra including COMT, MAOA, and MAOB.

It also modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor and androgen activating enzyme gene expression in the normal adolescent male rat substantia nigra, increasing our understanding of how sex steroids affect dopamine neurotransmission at adolescence and how they may contribute to psychopathology involving dopamine dysregulation.

How Do Amphetamines Affect Testosterone Levels?

Amphetamines negatively affect testosterone levels by inhibiting the release of hCG-stimulated progesterone in human testicular Leydig cells.

Amphetamines also act directly on steroidogenesis by increasing the activity of the P450scc enzyme, preventing the conversion of hCG to the major metabolite, testosterone.

In addition, amphetamines decrease a cAMP-mediated inhibitory signal from the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that prevents the activation of hCG-stimulated progesterone secretion.

Opioids have an indirect, anti-androgenic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormone axis through an increase in prolactin levels.

The opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone, which is often used clinically to reverse the effects of opioid overdose, suppresses the dopamine-stimulated production of GnRH. This effect is further exacerbated by the presence of estrogen in the blood, since it inhibits dopamine release.

Alcohol reduces testosterone by suppressing the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the testes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the ovaries. This effect is mediated by the inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal receptors 1 and 2; and of the P450scc enzyme, which binds androgens in the liver and converts them into their metabolically active forms.

Medications like methadone and tramadol hydrochloride, which are more effective at binding to u-opioid receptors than morphine, also interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis.

After a single injection of these drugs, rat testes showed lower LH and testosterone concentrations compared to control animals. The corresponding effects were counteracted by naltrexone and naloxone.

Other substances, such as cigarette smoking, excessive caffeine intake, illicit drug use and excessive alcohol consumption, also have negative effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system. However, these effects are reversible and can be partially normalized with the withdrawal of substance use.

Hypogonadism and Opioids

Hypogonadism is a condition of the testis, which results from an insufficient production of testosterone and/or a normal number of spermatozoa.

It is characterized by a decrease in the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by the hypothalamus, which leads to a decrease in the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland.

Chronic opioid use, especially at high doses, can significantly reduce a male’s testosterone levels. Consequently, he may experience decreased sexual function and reduced libido.

In men with long-term opioid treatment, opiate-induced hypogonadism is an emerging and often overlooked clinical problem. It is a significant cause of sexual dysfunction, and is associated with numerous other health effects, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and infertility.

The most common opioid-induced endocrine disorder is a deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that results in a reduction of the secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating (LH and FSH) hormones.

As a result, testosterone levels are inadequate and males develop sexual problems, such as erectile dysfunction (ED), oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea.

Moreover, opioids can also negatively affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by inhibiting GnRH secretion and increasing circulating prolactin.

This can lead to the development of central hypogonadism, which is an independent cause of low testosterone and asymptomatic gonadal suppression.

Considering the large amount of opioids being prescribed, and the potential for opioid-induced hypogonadism to be overlooked or misdiagnosed, it is important that pain practitioners remain vigilant about screening and treating patients with prolonged opioid therapy.

If hypogonadism is detected, appropriate testing and a testosterone replacement program can alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life.

Does Testosterone Lower Blood Sugar?

Testosterone is a sex hormone that helps regulate a variety of functions in the body, including fertility, bone mass, muscle mass and red blood cell production. Testosterone helps keep your blood glucose (blood sugar) levels in the normal range, which can help prevent diabetes.

Whether low testosterone and diabetes are related is still unclear, but men with low testosterone are more likely to have type 2 diabetes. They often have insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body doesn't respond to insulin properly and keeps blood sugar levels high.

Insulin resistance can cause a number of symptoms, one of which is low libido. In some cases, it can also lead to erectile dysfunction, which is the inability to get an erection.

If you're concerned that you have low testosterone or diabetes, ask your doctor if hormone replacement therapy (TRT) could help you. TRT can increase sex drive and improve energy levels, which may be helpful for managing diabetes.

TRT can be delivered in various ways, including injections, nasal sprays and pellets. It’s a safe and effective treatment option for men with hypogonadism, but some people have problems using it.

Dosing and side effects of TRT can vary, so talk to your doctor about what you can expect before taking it.

Some studies have shown that TRT can reduce your risk of developing a condition called hypoglycemia, which is low blood sugar that can lead to serious health problems.

Does Diabetes Cause Low Testosterone?

Low testosterone is common in men with diabetes. A recent study found that 45% of type 2 diabetics had reduced total testosterone, and 57% had decreased free testosterone.

A man with lower testosterone levels may have problems controlling his weight, blood sugar, and insulin. He can also have low energy, poor sleep, and depression.

Many of these symptoms are normal parts of aging, but they can be painful or debilitating if not addressed. If you think you may have low testosterone, speak with your doctor.

Treatment for Diabetes and Low Testosterone

Earlier this year, researchers reported that long-term treatment with TRT can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in men with low testosterone levels.

One third of the men in the study had a remission of their diabetes, and they had significant reductions in their glucose and A1C levels. In addition, those treated with testosterone had fewer deaths, myocardial infarctions, and diabetic complications.

Hypogonadism and Metabolic Syndrome

The association of testosterone deficiency with metabolic disorders has been well documented in a variety of studies, both in animal and human models.

Moreover, the clinical manifestations of this syndrome, in men, are characterized by sexual dysfunction, testicular atrophy and gynecomastia, muscle loss, reduced bone density, and anemia.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial condition involving the presence of several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity and insulin resistance. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Male hypogonadism is a common disorder, and is associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome.

It is characterized by lower total and free testosterone levels, sex hormone binding globulin level, and adipose tissue volume. It is a leading predictor of the development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus, and has been described as a vicious cycle in LOH patients.

One study evaluated the effect of 12 months of testosterone therapy on MetS components in a large cohort of men with functional hypogonadism and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) (N = 849).

Data were obtained from TRiUS (Testim(r) Registry in the United States), a prospective observational registry of hypogonadal men prescribed Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day).

Obesity and Hypogonadism

Males with adiposity, regardless of age or comorbid conditions, exhibit reduced testosterone levels. Studies show that testosterone decreases by 10 ng/dL per 1-kg/m2 increase in body mass index.

Obesity is the most common cause of male hypogonadism. Testosterone is a key hormone involved in male gonadotropin secretion. In men, low testosterone levels can cause infertility, erectile dysfunction, and loss of body hair, bone or muscle mass.

The onset of male hypogonadism can occur at any stage of life. It is a genetic condition in which the pituitary/hypothalamus doesn't produce the hormones that stimulate the testes. It may be caused by damage to the pituitary or hypothalamus, medications, surgery, or autoimmune diseases like Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome.

Obesity can affect a number of hormones involved in appetite, weight control and energy homeostasis. These include leptin, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines.

Leptin is a hunger-suppressing hormone produced by the adipose tissue. Its release inhibits GnRH pulsatility and negatively impacts the HPG axis in obesity.

Insulin resistance is another risk factor for male hypogonadism, which can occur with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as without it. Insulin resistance can negatively impact the synthesis and production of testosterone from Leydig cells, reducing testosterone levels.

Diagnosis of hypogonadism requires a thorough medical history and physical exam, followed by serum testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH concentrations.

Depending on the diagnosis, additional testing may be needed to exclude other syndromic causes of secondary hypogonadism, such as Turner syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome.

Testosterone and Weight Loss

Testosterone is a hormone that plays a key role in many aspects of a healthy male's body. Its main function is to promote muscle growth, enhance sperm production and improve sexual performance.

Testosterone also plays a role in fat loss. It speeds up your metabolism, promotes fat burn and helps you build muscle.

Obesity can reduce testosterone levels by increasing enzymes called aromatases in your fat cells. These enzymes convert testosterone into estrogen - the female sex hormone that can lead to weight gain.

In a 56-week study, overweight men with hypogonadism (low testosterone) lost an average of 6.4 pounds more when they received testosterone injections than those who took placebo.

Researchers believe that this is because of the hormone's ability to reduce inflammation and help reduce fat.

What Foods to Avoid and Which Ones to Eat to Boost Testosterone

There are multiple factors that can impact testosterone levels in the body, including diet and exercise. Eating a well-balanced, nutritious diet can help maintain healthy testosterone levels in the body.

Fried foods are high in polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs), which can inhibit your testosterone levels and lead to inflammation in the body. They can also cause abdominal obesity, which suppresses your testosterone.

Processed foods are rich in trans unsaturated fats and other artificial ingredients that can harm your health. They can also reduce your testosterone levels by raising insulin and causing inflammation.

Bread, pastry, and doughnuts contain high amounts of trans fat and are also high in sugar. The sugar in these foods can raise your insulin levels and increase your waistline size, which is a direct cause for low testosterone.

Nuts and avocados are great sources of testosterone-boosting fatty acids. They are also a good source of lignans, which can prevent your testosterone from being converted to dihydrotestosterone.

Zinc is another nutrient that can modulate your testosterone levels. Studies have shown that men who didn’t get enough zinc for a period of time had lower testosterone levels.

In addition to drinking water, you also need to eat foods that can help boost testosterone levels naturally. Here are some examples:

  1. Consume lots of cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, kale, turnips)
  2. Include foods such as lean meats and fish
  3. Take a supplement that includes zinc and vitamin D

Foods That Kill Testosterone - What You Need to Know

There are many ways to increase testosterone levels, and a healthy diet is one of the most effective. But a lot of foods have the potential to kill testosterone, if consumed in excess.

There is a long list of foods that can lower your testosterone, and some of them aren’t even good for you at all! These foods can impede your body’s ability to produce testosterone and could result in unhealthy weight gain, a low libido and a host of other male health problems.

The following are some of the most common foods that kill testosterone:

  • Licorice (and all forms of licorice) contains Glycyrrhizic acid, which can interfere with the body’s natural production of testosterone and stop it from converting to dihydrotestosterone. Fortunately, you can find licorice products that do not contain this chemical.
  • Flax seeds and flax oil are another food that may have a negative impact on your testosterone levels. Lignan, a compound found in flaxseeds, can reduce free testosterone and inhibit sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).
  • Processed and fried foods are also known to lower your testosterone levels. This is because processed foods typically have high amounts of trans fats, which can lead to a decrease in testosterone.
  • Pastries and desserts can also negatively affect your testosterone levels. They are rich in sugar, and a high intake of these foods can lead to weight gain.
  • Avoid eating too many polyunsaturated fats. Commercial vegetable oils are hydrogenated and dense with polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs). PUFAs can decrease your total testosterone and free testosterone in as little as one hour after you consume them.

Likewise, alcohol consumption can lower your testosterone levels. It’s best to limit or eliminate alcohol if you want to keep your testosterone levels in check. Drinking too much alcohol can lead to problems with your sexual desire and erectile dysfunction.

Does Testosterone Affect the Metabolism of Macronutrients?

Testosterone is involved in metabolism and cellular energy production, as well as moods and behaviour. It helps to regulate blood sugar levels by increasing the production of insulin.

It has a number of physiologic effects: it increases the ability to cope with stress, it stimulates energy production, it reduces appetite and it promotes weight loss.

It is also a potent anti-inflammatory and cytokine modulator that decreases blood pressure, cholesterol and triglyceride levels and it can decrease the risk of heart disease by increasing HDL-cholesterol.

The metabolism of testosterone is mediated through the enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidase (CYP11A1), which is a part of the mitochondrial pathway that metabolizes cholesterol.

In the first step, CYP11A1 deacetylates six carbon atoms of the side chain of cholesterol to produce pregnenolone. In the next step, the 3b-hydroxyl group of the side-chain is oxidized by 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to produce androstenedione.

When the steroid is released into the bloodstream, it binds to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with high affinity and albumin with low affinity. In men with obesity, SHBG-bound testosterone is a major source of heterogeneous serum testosterone concentrations.

There is some evidence that fat, both PUFA and MUFA, or a mixed meal containing fat and carbohydrates can suppress testosterone secretion in obese men.

In this study, a meal containing 20% or 30% fat and either PUFA or CHO reduced serum testosterone by up to 20% after 5 h.

Does Diet affect the Metabolism of Macronutrients?

Eating a well-balanced diet can improve your hormones. It should contain a variety of nutrient-dense whole foods, including protein, healthy fats, and plenty of antioxidant vitamins.

What you eat can directly affect your level of testosterone, and it's important to know what your body needs to maintain healthy hormone levels. 

The effects of different types of protein on testosterone are varying. Studies show that a diet that contains high amounts of saturated and polyunsaturated fats can lower testosterone levels, but proteins such as egg white protein may have a positive effect on hormones.

Carbohydrates and Testosterone

Carbohydrates are a critical nutrient for testosterone production.

Whether you're trying to increase your sex hormone or improve your athletic performance, getting the right balance of protein, carbs and fat will make a big difference.

Protein-to-carb ratios have a direct effect on testosterone levels (around a 2:1). The higher the ratio, the better.

Shoot for about 20-40 grams of protein and 40-100 grams of simple carbs before workouts and postworkout to help your body absorb more testosterone.

Consuming fast-digesting protein like whey and simple carbs after your workout can also boost your testosterone levels by increasing the amount of testosterone that enters muscle cells, where it's used to stimulate muscle growth.

The best kinds of carbs for improving hormonal health are complex carbohydrates (like whole, non-refined grains, fruits and vegetables), which produce less blood sugar spikes than refined carbohydrates.

What's more, the types of carbs you eat matter: The body responds to both complex and processed carbs differently.

For example, studies have shown that the type of carbohydrate that you eat can affect your testosterone and cortisol levels.

In one study, men who ate high carbohydrate diets had lower levels of testosterone than those on low-carbohydrate diets. Researchers suggested that this is because refined carbs trigger a large spike in blood sugar and insulin levels, which are known to suppress testosterone production.

The Relationship Between Protein Intake and Testosterone

In order to keep your testosterone levels in a healthy range, it is important to make sure you are getting enough protein and that you are eating a well balanced diet. It is also vital to get adequate amounts of exercise in order to promote muscle growth and strength gain.

The relationship between protein intake and testosterone has been the subject of many studies, which have shown that excessive protein consumption can decrease testosterone levels in men.

It is important to understand that testosterone is a very sensitive hormone and can be affected by many factors, so it is crucial to consult with your doctor before starting any new diet or exercise routine in order to ensure that it is safe for you to do.

There are many different types of protein that you can consume in your diet. In general, it is best to stick to the recommended intake of about 1 gram of protein per kilogram of bodyweight. Those who are very active and lead physical lifestyles can increase this to 1.8grams per kilogram.

It is also a good idea to take phosphatidylserine (PS), which is a lipid that is found in organ meats, fatty fish and white beans.

PS can enhance the anabolic effect of resistance training by improving the testosterone to cortisol ratio during exercise.

Do Fats Increase Testosterone?

A diet rich in polyunsaturated fats, particularly omega-6 fatty acids, has been shown to increase testosterone production. This is because these fatty acids can stimulate the activity of an enzyme that increases testosterone production in your testes.

Testosterone synthesis can also be increased by eating high-fat foods that are low in carbohydrates. This type of eating plan is referred to as the ketogenic diet, and it has been linked to increased testosterone levels in people who have tried it.

Saturated fatty acids can also raise testosterone levels. This is because these fatty acids can help to transport cholesterol into your testes, which leads to an increase in testosterone.

These fatty acids are found in red meat, nuts and seeds, and coconut oil. Eat these foods in moderation, and always stick with the leaner cuts of meat.

Some studies have shown that a diet high in monounsaturated fat, such as canola oil, can improve your blood cholesterol levels. This can also lower your risk of developing heart disease and diabetes, and reduce inflammation in your body.

Do Micronutrients Influence Testosterone?

Although many micronutrients have been linked to a wide range of health benefits, not all of them are beneficial for increasing testosterone levels. While a nutrient-dense diet is the best way to get enough of these vitamins and minerals, supplements can be an effective addition to your daily regimen.

Retinol and Testosterone Interaction

Retinol and testosteone are hormones that regulate spermatogenesis. They are essential for the proliferation of fetal and adult testis (Lamano Carvalho et al., 1978; Sadek and Abdul-Mohsen, 1999).

Retinoid synthesis in the adult testis is dependent on three different enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase, retinol dehydrogenase and retinal dehydrogenase (ADH, RALDH and RDH, respectively) in Sertoli cells and CRBP (cellular retinol binding protein) in peritubular cells.

Circulating retinol is stored in the testis in the form of retinyl esters, which are produced and oxidized by Sertoli cells to retinoic acid (RA).

The expression of these enzymes is highly regulated during fetal development. The fetal testis is highly sensitive to the effects of circulating retinoids.

During testicular development, Sertoli cells secrete RA and testosterone into the peritubular ducts and then to the germ cells.

The cytoplasm of the Sertoli cell is also saturated with retinol. Moreover, the Sertoli cells oxidize retinol into retinoic acid, which is needed for their own functions and that of the germ cells.

Testosterone and retinol also influence the organization of the seminiferous cords in the fetal testis. In fact, retinoids inhibit tube formation in the presence of fibrin and inflammatory mediators and enhance its activity in the absence of these stimuli.

These observations demonstrate a non-classical mechanism of interaction between testosterone and retinol that involves the activation of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (L-VDCC) in Sertoli cells and the activation of potassium currents (Kv) via the participation of TEA-sensitive K+ channels.

These ionic modulations play a crucial role in the rapid responses of Sertoli cells to steroid stimulation and male fertility by activating secretory activities.


The mineral zinc plays a number of important roles in the body, including supporting metabolism and maintaining sperm quality. It is easy to get enough zinc from your diet, but if you're deficient in this nutrient, a supplement may help boost your T levels.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem for men and women, but consuming adequate amounts of this nutrient can be difficult.

It's essential for immune function, bone health, and mood-related issues. Read more about supplementing vitamin D, here.

Boron and Testosterone

Boron is a mineral that can help you to increase testosterone levels. Various studies have shown that this can lead to a wide range of benefits for your health.

Boosting Free Testosterone By Lowering SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

Almost all the testosterone in your body is bound up in red blood cells called SHBG. Taking Boron breaks up these SHBG molecules, which frees up more sex hormones in your bloodstream.

This naturally increases your free testosterone, which means you can take advantage of more sexy benefits like muscle growth, recovery, and strength enhancement.

Improved Erectile Function

As you may know, low testosterone can lead to poor erections. Thankfully, there are natural supplements includig boron that can help you get your testosterone levels back to normal.

Protection from Vitamin D Deficiency

Boron can help you raise your Vitamin D levels, which can be important for healthy testosterone production. It also helps your body to absorb Vitamin D and other essential minerals/vitamins.

Faster Wound Healing/Healing

A 1990 study found that treating deep wounds with 3% Boron reduced healing times by two-thirds. This is due to the fact that boron can speed up your body’s ability to activate the fibroblasts in your skin and cells.

Better Sexual Function

A 2015 study found that taking a 6-mg dose of boron for only one week increased the metabolism of total testosterone in your body to free testosterone.

This can help in several sex-related functions, including enhancing sexual function and strengthening your immune system.

Vitamin K2 and Testosterone

The body needs vitamin K for blood clotting but it's also an essential nutrient for a number of other processes.

It has a lot of health benefits including reducing the risk of heart disease, lowering high cholesterol levels, enhancing bone health and helping to prevent kidney stones.

It helps to direct the calcium you absorb into your bones and works in a similar way to a sat nav, sending it to where it is most needed.

The vitamin also plays an important role in testosterone production and is therefore a vital nutrient for those looking to boost their T-levels.

Vitamin K2 is mainly found in foods like cheese, yoghurt and other dairy products but can also be taken as a supplement. It's been found to be particularly effective when combined with vitamin D and other supplements that will boost your T-levels further.


Increasing testosterone is a great way to improve your overall wellbeing and can have a big impact on your energy levels and muscle mass. It can also help to increase your lean tissue and reduce the amount of body fat around the middle, all of which will give you more definition to your look.

A recent study showed that the presence of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), one of the main K2 vitamins, can stimulate the production of testosterone in male rats.

This is a pretty significant finding, as it suggests that the K2 form of vitamin D might be an essential co-factor in testosterone synthesis.

Iron and testosterone: a controversial topic

One of the most serious side effects from low testosterone is anemia. Anemia causes your organs and tissues to starve for oxygen, putting you at higher risk for chronic disease and premature death.

Multiple studies have shown that men with low testosterone and anemia benefit from taking testosterone therapy. Treatment can help increase hemoglobin levels, and many men find that they no longer suffer from anemia after the first few months of treatment.

Iron is crucial for the production of red blood cells. It also helps prevent anemia and increases the lifespan of red blood cells.

Some studies have shown that low testosterone can affect iron levels, resulting in a condition called dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS). It is found in about 10 to 20 percent of overweight or obese individuals worldwide and has been linked to anemia and bone loss.

The effects of low testosterone on iron are complex and it is unclear how this process works. Some researchers believe that testosterone suppresses hepcidin, which is the primary regulatory hormone for iron absorption in the body.

This effect is believed to be mediated by testosterone-induced erythrocytosis, and it can increase the number of red blood cells in the body.

Testosterone has also been shown to stimulate the production of erythropoietin, a hormone that helps the body produce more red blood cells.

Vitamin B6 and Testosterone

Vitamin B6, more commonly known by its chemical name Pyridoxine, is one of the key vitamins for testosterone secretion.

It plays an integral part in converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone which in turn plays an essential role in both sexual drive and muscle growth.

Studies have demonstrated that high doses of Vitamin B6 can help men increase their testosterone levels.

This effect occurs due to its ability to enhance the function of Leydig cells - the cells which produce testosterone - while stimulating production of LH (luteinizing hormone), both components that control production-release of testosterone. Vitamin B6 can be found in various meat, poultry, fish and dairy products as well as some plant-based foods.

Women need Vitamin B6 to balance hormones and neurotransmitters. It plays a critical role in detoxifying estrogen while supporting healthy liver and thyroid functions.

High intakes of B-vitamins such as Vitamin B6, folate, and B12 have been associated with lower serum estradiol in healthy menstruating women who regularly menstruate.

Numerous health conditions, including kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, some autoimmune disorders and alcohol dependence can result in deficiency of Vitamin B-6.

Magnesium For Testosterone Secretion

When it comes to testosterone secretion, all factors should be taken into consideration.

Testosterone does not act independently but as part of an intricate system containing many other hormones whose secretion depends on multiple factors like magnesium availability.

Magnesium is an indispensable mineral, contributing to over 300 chemical reactions in your body and playing an essential role in protein synthesis, bone mineralization and muscle function and protein metabolism.

Furthermore, magnesium helps with sleep hygiene while decreasing stress by suppressing cortisol (your main stress hormone).

Magnesium is essential in producing testosterone and other anabolic hormones, and research shows that ingestion of this mineral can improve both total and free testosterone production as well as IGF-1 production.

magnesium supplements are abundant on the market, but when looking for one it's essential that you look out for magnesium bisglycinate; its superior absorption over its competitors.

Bound to amino acid glycine for improved absorption and decreased laxative effects associated with magnesium oxide or citrate forms of this mineral.

Study conducted on 400 men aged 65 or over revealed that magnesium supplementation significantly raised both free and total testosterone, along with IGF-1 levels.

This increase is thought to be caused by its effects on binding proteins that bind sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), making more testosterone available for body use. 

Potassium and Testosterone

Potassium is a vital mineral that can help improve blood flow, increase erection quality and keep testosterone levels high. It's also an important nutrient for the heart and can be found in many foods, including spinach, avocados and portobello mushrooms.

Testosterone is a powerful hormone that can increase erection quality and strength. However, it's a hormone that can also cause a variety of problems for some men, such as high blood pressure and vascular disease.

A study in male rats showed that testosterone shortened QT intervals, a long-term effect which occurs at a much later age than for women, but could be caused by its genomic effects or other nongenomic actions of testosterone.

This shortened QT is probably caused by upregulation of delayed rectifier potassium channel currents and inward-rectifier potassium channel current in cardiomyocytes, possibly by a transcriptional mechanism mediated by CREB-Sp1.

These results were replicated in a series of patch-clamp studies on isolated coronary myocytes using the BKCa channel opening agonist testosterone.  

Does Sodium Affect Testosterone?

It is not known what causes this endocrine hormone to be negatively affected by salt, but reducing salt intake may lead to a decline in testosterone levels. 

Numerous studies have shown that low sodium levels can affect testosterone levels in both men and women, even if they are not experiencing any other symptoms of sodium deficiency.

In the long run, a diet high in salt is bad for your health and can contribute to various conditions such as high blood pressure, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes. But for those suffering from these conditions, the best way to control their symptoms is to implement a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Salt and fertility

Besides affecting testosterone, salt deficiency can also negatively affect your fertility. This is because some steroid and peptide hormones that are involved in reproduction trigger a salt appetite and are stimulated by the presence of sodium.

Botanicals and Phytonutrients for Testosterone

Androgen production, mainly accomplished by Leydig cells from the interstitial compartment of the testis, is essential for male fertility and the maintenance of spermatogenesis.

During aging, testosterone production by Leydig cells declines in humans at an average rate of 1% per year.

The biosynthesis of cholesterol is the major pathway for testosterone synthesis.

This involves a cascade of reactions involving multiple steroidogenic enzymes, including Cyp11a1 (cholesterol side-chain cleavage), CYP17A1 (cytochrome P450 17a-hydroxylase/20-lyase), HSD3B1 in rodents and HSD3B2 in humans), and 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (HSD17B3).

Flavonoids and isoflavonoids have been shown to enhance steroidogenesis in Leydig cells, contributing to a positive impact on spermatogenesis.

These polyphenols have a 5,7-dihydroxychromen-4-one backbone, which tends to increase the expression of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), promoting cholesterol uptake and enhancing testosterone production from the Leydig cells.

Anti-aromatase activity: Resveratrol, epigallocatechin, and lignans are some phytonutrients that have been shown to lower aromatase in the body and therefore help improve a man’s testosterone levels naturally.

These nutrients can be found in fruits and vegetables, resveratrol-rich red wine, and oleuropein-rich olive oil.

The importance of consuming foods or use supplements rich in these micronutrients should be considered when seeking to improve testosterone levels. 

Stinging Nettle and Testosterone

Nettle is a plant that grows in many parts of the world and is known to be a powerful anti-inflammatory.

Traditionally stinging nettle (urtica dioica) has been used to treat urinary tract infections, hay fever, and joint pain. Its leaves and stem have a distinctive appearance, with what look like little hairs that sting if touched.

Stinging nettle root has been shown to reduce inflammation, relieve allergies, increase free testosterone, and help with blood sugar and pressure regulation. It also acts as a diuretic and can help improve wound healing.

In addition, stinging nettle is a strong antioxidant that has been linked to reducing cancer cells in the body. It may help support healthy cholesterol levels and improve prostate health.

It can also help lower triglycerides in the bloodstream. It is a potent anti-inflammatory that has been shown to ease rheumatoid arthritis inflammation.

The roots of urtica dioica contain calcium, magnesium, and iron which are all important nutrients for preventing physical ailments such as osteoporosis, muscle and joint pain, and bone strength.

They are also helpful for lowering blood pressure and improving heart health.

Studies have also been done on stinging nettle leaf extract and testosterone in rats. The research indicates that stinging nettle reduces sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and may be a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor.

This could theoretically boost testosterone levels but the results in the studies are not conclusive.

It is believed that stinging nettle helps boost testosterone levels in the human body because it can prevent SHBG from binding to the testosterone receptors in the male reproductive system.

In addition, it can also boost levels of testosterone in the blood by inhibiting 5 alpha-reductase which is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Mucuna Pruriens and Testosterone

If you're looking to improve your testosterone levels naturally, then Mucuna pruriens may be one of the most potent natural testosterone boosters you can take.

Testosterone plays a major role in your muscle mass, strength and virility, so getting yours optimized is crucial for your overall male health and wellbeing.

Mucuna pruriens is a powerful adaptogenic herb that can help to improve your body's ability to manage stress. This helps to reduce stress-induced cortisol levels, which are known to torpedo testosterone levels in the body.

It's also a potent testosterone-boosting agent thanks to its high content of L-DOPA, a precursor to dopamine, which can boost mood and energy.

In addition, Mucuna pruriens can increase Luteinizing Hormone and lower prolactin levels for a healthy and balanced hormone profile!

In addition to its positive effects on your hormones, mucuna pruriens also promotes spermatogenesis and normalizes semen quality for improved fertility.

This is particularly helpful for men who suffer from Oligospermia or Asthenospermia, which means a low sperm count or poor sperm motility.

A number of studies have shown that mucuna pruriens can significantly improve your sperm counts and motility when taken regularly.

In fact, 5g of mucuna seed powder taken daily for 90 days was able to increase sperm counts by 688% among infertile men and 32% among non-infertile men.


Fenugreek is another natural testosterone booster. Fenugreek is a popular herb that has been shown to reduce the amount of estrogen your body produces and increase total testosterone levels.

This herb also contains furostanolic saponins, which are known to be powerful testosterone-boosting compounds.

Tongkat Ali Increases Testosterone Secretion

Eurycoma longifolia (longjack/Tongkat ali) has long been recognized for its libido-boosting abilities and energy-boosting effects, and more recently has even become widely promoted as a means to increase testosterone secretion.

Today, several supplements containing longjack are sold on the market that aim to promote this plant's properties further.

Testosterone is an androgen hormone which plays a vital role in building muscle, fat loss and keeping immunity running efficiently.

Men should strive to maintain optimal levels of this steroid to avoid health issues like erectile dysfunction and low libido - however as men age their testosterone levels diminish leading to all sorts of issues.

New research published in Phytotherapy Research indicates that tongkat ali can increase testosterone production via its effects on libido and stress response.

In a double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with 200mg daily dosages of tongkat ali extract being taken by men as part of their daily regimen, they experienced significant increases in both total and free testosterone levels while experiencing decreases in stress markers like tension and anger levels compared with control subjects.

Researchers attribute Tongkat Ali's ability to increase testosterone levels due to its eurycomanone compounds.

Studies have demonstrated these bioactives can enhance production of androgen precursors like pregnenolone and DHEA while simultaneously inhibiting aromatase enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen.

Bioactive compounds found in tongkat ali extract may also help decrease production of cortisol, a hormone which promotes fat accumulation.

According to a 2021 study involving men with normal testosterone levels who supplemented for one month with tongkat ali extract found increased testosterone and decreased cortisol, leading to improved quality of life and exercise performance among study participants.

Ashwagandha and Testosterone

Ashwagandha is an adaptogenic herb that has been used in Indian medicine for centuries. It's thought to boost the body's resilience against stress and anxiety, which can cause long-term problems like stunted testosterone levels and erectile dysfunction (ED).

It also helps manage stress, reduce cholesterol, improve sleep, and increase muscle strength. It can be taken in capsules or extract form.

Studies show that it increases testosterone and DHEA-S, a hormone produced by the body. It's also helpful for improving sperm quality in men who have low sperm concentration or oligospermia.

In a small study, men who took a 600 mg ashwagandha extract for 8 weeks had 15% higher salivary testosterone levels and 18% higher DHEA-S levels than participants taking a placebo. They also experienced increased luteinizing hormone, which stimulates testosterone production in the brain and pituitary gland.

The herb is safe to take when taken at lower dosages, but it can have side effects, including stomach upset and vertigo. It may also stimulate the immune system, so people with autoimmune conditions should avoid taking it.

Does Drinking Water Increase Testosterone?

If you’re trying to increase testosterone, there are a few things you need to know about drinking water.

First of all, you need to be aware that dehydration is a major factor in decreasing your testosterone.

It is especially common among men who are active, which means that you need to drink plenty of water during exercise. A great way to find out your optimaum hydration strategy is by performing a sweat rate calculation

Alcohol and Testosterone

A lot of drinking isn’t good for your hormone health.

Whether you’re an avid drinker or just occasionally enjoy a glass of beer, too much alcohol can harm your testosterone levels and the rest of your reproductive health.

Testosterone is an androgen hormone that helps control a healthy libido, fat distribution, bone and muscle mass, and sperm production in men. It also plays a role in female fertility.

Excessive alcohol consumption can decrease testosterone levels by interfering with three components of the male reproductive system, namely the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and testes.

The hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which tells your anterior pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-two hormones that instruct your testes to produce testosterone and sperm.

Heavy alcohol use has been linked to lower testosterone levels in men and may be a contributing factor for reducing the effectiveness of testosterone replacement therapy.

Alcohol can increase your body’s level of b-endorphin, which inhibits testosterone production and release in the testes.

In addition, alcohol can lower your level of a coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is necessary for both alcohol metabolism and testosterone synthesis.

Soy and Testosterone

Whether you like it or not, soy has a reputation as being a phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens, or compounds classified as isoflavones, are dietary antioxidants that have been linked to a number of health benefits, including reducing the risk for breast and prostate cancer.

It’s been argued that the estrogenic effects of soy can be detrimental to fertility, as it may decrease sperm concentration and ejaculation. This concern has been fueled by studies involving subfertile couples who consume large amounts of soy foods.

While it’s important to understand that research on soy and male fertility is inconclusive, there are some promising findings.

One study observed 99 male partners of subfertile couples and found that sperm concentrations were not significantly lower in men who consumed soy foods than those who did not.

The researchers also pointed out that the type of soy, the way it was processed and consumed, and the amount of soy in each meal affected a man’s hormone levels. This can be especially true for those who take soy supplements or eat whole soy products.

To better understand how soy could affect testosterone, McVey MJ’s lab examined how increasing soy intake affected the steroidogenic enzymes StAR and CYP11A1.

The study revealed that soybean oil increased serum LA and ALA, which activated the LH/LHCGR pathway to promote the function of steroid synthesis in Leydig cells.

This was followed by an increase in testosterone levels. This was confirmed by a 2010 meta-analysis published in Fertility and Sterility. 

Does Luteolin Increase Testosterone?

When luteolin is consumed it inhibits the expression of aromatase – a gene that produces estrogen. This means that it will prevent the build-up of estrogen in your system - which will improve your testosterone and overall hormonal balance.

Multiple dietary flavonoids have been shown to inhibit aromatase, and luteolin is particularly effective.

It does this by inhibiting aromatase mRNA and protein expression in KGN cells, which are the primary source of estrogens in premenopausal women.

In addition to its anti-aromatase activity, luteolin is a powerful antioxidant that hunts down Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and stops their production in your body.

ROS are free radicals that can damage your DNA, lipids, and proteins, leading to a whole range of serious health issues.

You can find luteolin in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in supplements. Some popular luteolin-rich foods include parsley, celery, and radicchio.

Read more about its effect on testosterone, here.

Cinnamon and Testosterone

Cinnamon has anti-inflammatory properties and can reduce oxidative stress in the body. It also has antibacterial properties, which can help prevent the development of bacteria that cause infection and disease.

As you might imagine, there aren't many human studies that have investigated cinnamon's effects on testosterone.

There are some on diabetic rats that have yielded positive results but that is about it, and these pieces of research do not necesarily translate to a large demographic. 

Click here to read more.

What Onion is Best for Testosterone?

The main sex hormone, testosterone (17b-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) is a critical factor for growth of muscles, hair, and other sexual features.

A low level of this hormone is associated with a host of health problems such as male infertility, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's, osteoporosis, depression and cardiovascular disease.

Onion contains a variety of bioactive compounds, including sulfur compounds such as diallyl disulfide, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide, and dipropyl disulfide.

They are thought to improve insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in animal models, as well as have antihyperglycemic effects.

Onions are a rich source of antioxidants and have the ability to reduce high blood pressure, improve blood flow, and boost the immune system.

They also promote the production of nitric oxide, which increases blood flow to the testes and penis and improves erectile function.

It has been noted that onion may be able to increase testosterone levels. There are a few studies showing a positive result, however, most of the studies are purely animal based using rats. 

That said there is one human study that demonstrated a positive result. Over a period of 14 days, healthy men were given 30mg of onion extracts which yielded a positive result. 

Although there is only one study available, it is worth noting that the people of Okinawan habitually consume onions (amogst other vegetables) and are the longest-living people in the world.

The men of Okinawan also have higher serum testosterone concentration when compared to their US peers.

The type of onion isn't of concern, however, all of the studies have either used onion juice or onion extract with just one using the bulb of an onion.  

Does Creatine Increase Testosterone?

Testosterone is the primary sex hormone in men and plays a key role in body composition (muscle mass, strength, endurance, energy), fat distribution, and hair growth. It also acts as a natural anabolic, acting in conjunction with exercise to increase muscle protein synthesis.

In addition, testosterone stimulates the secretion of IGF-1, a potent anabolic that promotes lean body mass and strength.

It also enhances nitric oxide, which helps widen blood vessels to help increase oxygen flow and improve circulation.

However, there is very little evidence to demonstrate that creatine directly improves testosterone levels.

Creatine Dosage and Loading

Supplementation of creatine has been shown to significantly increase muscle size, strength, and performance in trained athletes. The body produces creatine naturally, primarily from the amino acids methionine, glycine, and arginine.

It’s not necessary to load a creatine supplement, but it can help you see results more rapidly. By using a loading dose of 15 to 25 grams per day for five days, you can saturate your muscle cells with the compound.

Then, after that, you can take a maintenance dose of 3-5 grams per day to keep your levels high.

The creatine can take 30 days to saturate muscle cells, but with the loading dose, you can start seeing results immediately.

Three studies in healthy young males have shown small hormonal increases in testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) during a period of supplementation. These increases remained within normal ranges at the end of the study.

Does Milk Decrease Testosterone?

If you're eating too much dairy, it may be affecting your testosterone levels. Milk contains estrogen and progesterone, which can suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which your testes use to produce testosterone.

Despite this, many studies have shown that the right amount of dairy is not necessarily harmful to your testosterone levels.

It's just important to make sure it's not the type of milk that's high in estrogens.

Despite the fact that cow’s milk contains estrogen and progesterone, cow's milk has no negative effect on male hormone levels. In fact, it’s believed that cow’s milk can help prevent osteoporosis and bone fractures and maintain a healthy weight.

Does Coffee Increase Testosterone?

Everyone enjoys a cup of coffee as it gives you that boost of energy you need to get through the day. However, this stimulant can also affect a number of other important functions in the body including hormone levels.

Coffee may help Elevate Testosterone

One study that analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and sex hormones found that coffee may help raise testosterone in men, but not in women.

This was a double-blind study that compared regular coffee with decaffeinated coffee. It found that participants who drank regular coffee had higher testosterone and lower estradiol than those who drank decaf.

Interestingly, both regular and decaf coffee had positive effects on SHBG in males but not in females. This is due to the fact that caffeine acts as an aromatase inhibitor, which can help increase your body’s production of testosterone.

If you are looking for a way to raise your testosterone levels, we suggest trying an herbal supplement that contains ingredients designed to support this process. Hopefully, this will help you reach your optimal hormonal balance! 

Read more about coffee and testosterone.

Does Pine Bark Extract Increase Testosterone?

Testosterone fluctuates naturally as we age and may be affected by a number of factors such as diet, exercise, lifestyle and stress levels. If your testosterone level is unusually low, this can affect several areas of your life including sex drive, muscle deterioration, fatigue, weight gain and even osteoporosis.

If you’re looking to bolster your testosterone, it is important to ensure you get adequate vitamins and minerals from your diet and supplements.

A quality supplement will contain the right combination of testosterone boosting ingredients to help you achieve the desired results.

However, there isn't any research available to suggest that pine bark extract increases testosterone levels either on its own or when combined with other nutrients. You can read more about pine bark extract and testosterone

Does Damiana Leaf Increase Testosterone?

Damiana (Turnera diffusa) is an herb that has been used for centuries to improve sexual performance and libido in both men and women. It’s also known to relieve depression and anxiety, which makes it a popular aphrodisiac and stress-relieving herb.

There is limited research on the effects of this herb on testosterone, though. One study shows that it increased libido and performance in rats that were low on energy and sexually sluggish.

However, it wasn’t effective in healthy male rats.

What’s more, this herb may not be ideal for female reproductive health. It has been shown to increase testosterone and decrease oestrogen in women, so it should be avoided in women with a hormone imbalance.

That said, there isn't any evidence to suggest that damiana leaf increases testosterone.

Apple Cider Vinegar and Testosterone

Erectile dysfunction is one of the most common problems that men face in their lives. This condition can result in a man being unable to attain or sustain an erection and prevent him from having sex with women.

There are multiple treatments available to help people with ED improve their sexual function, including therapy and medication.

Some research suggests that regular use of apple cider vinegar (ACV) can reduce blood lipids. Lowering lipids can reduce the risk of heart disease, and this is an important factor for men who experience ED.

It has also been found that ACV may boost testosterone levels. One body of research cooncluded that is could reduce estrogen levels.

How Does Marijuana and Testosterone Work?

There are a lot of questions about how marijuana and testosterone work, from whether it increases or decreases levels to what the side effects might be. 

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that's produced in the male body. It plays a key role in regulating a variety of things, including fertility, muscle growth, and sexual health.

While many studies have found that weed can lower or increase T-levels, the truth is that these effects vary depending on your use and dose.

THC is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, and it binds to CB1 receptors in your brain and endocannabinoid system, influencing a range of different hormones.

Low-T is associated with many negative side effects, such as a lack of energy and sex interest. Moreover, low-T is linked to mood swings and anxiety.

In a study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, researchers found that men who smoked pot on a regular basis had lower sperm concentrations than non-pot smokers. This is because a hormone called FSH, which stimulates sperm production, is decreased in pot users.

Does Marijuana Affect Testosterone?

Low testosterone is a common condition that can lead to a number of negative health outcomes such as weight gain, fatigue, gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction. The question of whether marijuana affects testosterone levels is a tricky one to answer as research on these topics is conflicting.


There are a few different compounds in cannabis that affect endocrine systems. THC, the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, lowers pituitary gonadotropins and testosterone. In contrast, the nonpsychoactive CBD has antiestrogenic activity and can also inhibit testosterone synthesis.

Does Marijuana Increase Estrogen?

Although most studies show that THC suppresses testosterone synthesis in men, some suggest that it can actually increase estrogen levels. Estrogen is a female reproductive hormone and can have a negative effect on sex quality in men.

The most recent study in 2017 found that serum testosterone levels were higher in those who used marijuana more recently than those who didn’t use it. They found this relationship by examining data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

The researchers analyzed 1577 men who were between 18 and 65 years of age and answered questions on their use of marijuana. They also had their testosterone levels tested.

The results showed that the highest correlation between serum testosterone levels and the amount of time the participants had smoked weed was among those who had ever used marijuana regularly, but it was slightly lower in current users.

The Therapeutic Potential of Testosterone

Testosterone can be used to treat an array of endocrine disorders, including low testosterone (hypogonadism). Men with hypogonadism often have symptoms such as decreased libido and erectile dysfunction.

They may also experience decreased energy, reduced muscle mass, and a loss of bone density.

Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone can be beneficial for a range of hormone imbalances and can lead to significant improvement in a patient's symptoms and quality of life.

The benefits of TRT can include an increase in libido and sexual function, improved muscle and bone mass, enhanced mood, increased erythropoiesis, improved cognition and improved cardiovascular health.

TRT can also reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in men with a history of high cholesterol, clotting disorders, or prostate cancer. However, it is still important to report any family histories of these conditions before beginning testosterone treatment.

Read out article regarding the therapeutic potential on testosterone, here.

Testosterone Supplementation and Older Men

Increasing testosterone levels in older men is a growing area of research. Testosterone is a sex hormone and plays an important role in male health, including sexual function and muscle strength. It also helps with the aging process, including erectile dysfunction and cognitive decline.

About 5% of men have low testosterone (Low T) levels, and these are more common in older men than younger men. This can be caused by a variety of reasons, including cancer treatments, enlarged prostates and chronic diseases.

Testosterone therapy has a variety of benefits, including improved mood and energy, better sexual performance and increased muscle mass. It can improve a man’s ability to live a longer, healthier life and reduce the risk of heart disease and some cancers.

Side effects of testosterone therapy include erectile dysfunction, acne and skin reactions, noncancerous prostate growth and polycythemia vera (a condition that causes thickening of the blood).

Other potential side effects include bruising, hair loss, swelling, increased fat cells, decreased bone density and a higher rate of heart failure.

There are different types of testosterone therapies, including topical gels, patches and oral medications. There are also injections and implants that provide long-lasting testosterone.

Studies have shown that testosterone therapy can have beneficial effects on cognition and muscle function in older men with low circulating testosterone levels, but many studies have been small and short-term.

This could mean that testosterone treatment isn’t a good option for everyone, especially if they already have a condition that affects their mental functioning.

Oral vs Injections TRT

If you’ve been diagnosed with low testosterone and have been thinking about testosterone therapy, there are a lot of questions to think about. You might be wondering if oral vs injections will work for you or what’s the best treatment option for you.

Choosing the Right Testosterone Replacement Product

There are currently several testosterone preparations that are USA FDA approved and can be categorized by route of delivery (bucal, nasal, subdermal, transdermal, and intramuscular).

Each formulation has its own pharmacokinetics and dosing requirements.

Some forms of testosterone can affect your urinary tract and may worsen symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). You might also need to urinate more frequently than usual, especially when you are asleep.

Your physician may ask you to stop taking testosterone if you have any symptoms or complications. This can prevent an imbalance of estrogen and testosterone in your body, which could lead to a precancerous condition.

The effects of testosterone on men’s health are complex and not well understood. Studies have shown that testosterone may improve sexual function, increase bone mass, and reduce symptoms of depression in men with hypogonadism.

However, it’s important to note that testosterone therapy is not recommended for men unless it can be proven to have a positive impact on your quality of life. There are other ways to improve your testosterone levels, such as weight loss and exercise.

Peptide Therapy Versus Testosterone Therapy

There are a lot of myths and misconceptions surrounding peptide therapy versus testosterone therapy. It’s important to be well-informed to ensure that you make the best decision for your situation. 

One of the most common misconceptions is that peptide therapy and testosterone therapy are similar. However, these are very different treatments with a variety of benefits.

Peptide therapy is an innovative medical procedure that targets specific bodily processes for the improvement of health. It uses a combination of carefully designed amino acid sequences (peptides) to trigger a particular response in the body.

While these peptides are present in the body naturally, they can be delivered to different areas using injections. Essentially, they’re tiny proteins that attach to receptors and send messages throughout the body.

These peptides have several benefits that include increased muscle mass, relief of pain, and enhanced libido.

While it may take some time for these peptides to show their full effect, they can be extremely beneficial in the long run.

Another benefit of peptide therapy is its ability to boost human growth hormone production. This can improve sexual function, reduce erectile dysfunction, and increase the overall quality of life for men.

Where's the Best Area to Apply Testosterone Cream?

When a woman has a low libido, testosterone cream can be used to stimulate a better sex drive. These white, odorless creams contain testosterone.

Testosterone gel is applied to the skin on one or both inner wrists and then rubbed in gently until it is completely absorbed. It usually takes about 60 seconds for the testosterone to dissolve into the skin.

You should apply this medication to a clean area of the body at around the same time every day (e.g., in the morning before you take a shower). Use testosterone topical only as directed by your doctor.

Do not apply testosterone to your penis or scrotum and do not apply it to skin that has cuts or sores. This may cause the medication to leak into your urine or bowel.

Avoid applying the testosterone gel to the skin of other people, especially children and women. This is because it may affect their hormone levels and increase their risk of becoming masculinized.

Alternatively, you could also try using a single use tube of scrotal testosterone cream instead of injecting it into your scrotum.

This is a more convenient way to apply testosterone to your body, especially if you are constantly on the go and do not want to waste time in the doctor's office for injections.

Testosterone Therapy Side Effects

The biggest concern doctors have regarding TRT side effects is the increased risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.

These potential side effects are believed to be due to a higher dose of testosterone in men using long-term treatment and could affect the way their hearts work.

Different forms of testosterone therapy can be used, including injections (testerol cypionate and testosterone enanthate) or gels or patches. Each type of treatment may have its own side effects, and it’s important to discuss your health history with your physician.

You should not use testosterone if you have sleep apnea, benign prostate hyperplasia (an enlarged prostate), cancer of the breast or testicles, high blood pressure, or kidney disease.

You also shouldn’t take this medication if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, because it can harm the baby.


The acne you might get on testosterone therapy is usually manageable with good skin care and some common acne treatments, and can be reversed if you stop taking the hormone. However, some acne can be a little more severe and requires prescription medications.

Weight gain

You might notice some weight gain, but this is not a major issue for most people on testosterone. It is a sign that your body is adjusting to the hormone changes and can typically melt away after a few days.

Male-Pattern Baldness

It’s possible that testosterone therapy can lead to male-pattern baldness, though it’s not known how this happens or whether the condition is permanent. But if you want to prevent it, it’s a good idea to have regular checkups with your doctor and take steps to reduce your risk of developing the condition.

Alternatives to Testosterone Shots

Low testosterone in males is a common condition that can have negative effects, including a lower sperm count, decreased bone or muscle mass, body fat accumulation, and erectile dysfunction. Doctors may prescribe testosterone injections to help alleviate symptoms.

Testosterone Injections

There are four types of injectable testosterone options, each of which can be administered by a health professional: Cypionate, Enanthate, Propionate and HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin).

All have their own benefits and risks and should be used in conjunction with other treatments.

There are many alternatives to testosterone shots, including gels and creams that can be applied to the skin daily. These can help improve low testosterone symptoms without boosting the hormone itself.

Pellet Therapy

Pellets are tiny pellets that are implanted under the skin every few months during a quick and easy outpatient procedure.

They release a steady dose of testosterone over the course of treatment, but require no daily maintenance and can be more convenient for some men.

Gels and Creams

There is a growing trend among some men to use gels or creams as an alternative to testosterone injections. These can be absorbed by the blood and are not as effective at raising the hormone as an injection or pellet, but they do offer other benefits. 

Are Testosterone Boosters Legal in the Military?

A dietary supplement is considered a food and is not regulated by the US FDA or the WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency).

There are a number of supplements that are allowed in the military, but only if they do not contain any chemicals or substances which would cause a positive drug test. These supplements are generally a mixture of different herbs and botanicals, such as plant extracts.

These ingredients can stimulate the production of your own natural testosterone hormone, allowing you to perform better in both physical and mental training. They also prevent any deficiencies in your diet that could negatively affect your hormone levels.

This is important for all athletes and soldiers because they can make a big difference to their training.

The difference between steroids and test boosters is quite vast, a steroid fills your body with synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of testosterone on a huge scale, they can have many unwanted side effects, whereas a test booster actually stimulates your own natural production of this vital hormone.

A steroid can accentuate masculine traits, for men this is more muscle, less fat, a deep voice and facial hair amongst others, while a natural testosterone booster will stimulate the natural release of this essential hormone from your own body.

A test booster which contains a combination of safe and legal ingredients that will both stimulate your own natural testosterone production and will also fill any nutrient gaps in your diet which may be contributing to your lack of hormones.

This makes it a safe and legal supplement to take in the military, and one that can really improve your performance.

Do Test Boosters Have Side Effects?

While some test boosters do have some side effects, they usually arise from using low-quality supplements or health conditions that trigger an allergic reaction. In general, they are safe and effective when taken as per the guidelines.

However, not all products are equal; and there isn't a regulated or controlled nutrient profile that they must follow.

When looking for a test booster look to see who is behind the product; do they have any relevant qualifications and experience. Transparency is key, as are the doses.

Therefore, check is there is a proprietary blend, if there is, it is best to avoid it. 

Also make sure that it isn't just another cloned 'private label' supplement with a different label on it. 

It is important to do some research and digging of the brand, see how long they have been in business, who the owner/founder is and ensure that there is clincial evidence of the nutrients used.

Afterall, would you trust a car mechanic to perform heart surgery, and would you want a lawyer to build a roof externsion on your house?

In addition, look for confirmed customer reviews on platforms such as Trustpilot.

If you can follow these procedures this will minimize any unwanted side effects, as a well regarded and responsible company will use quality ingredients that are 'evidence informed'. 

Ways to Increase Testosterone Naturally

There are a few ways to increase testosterone naturally. However, it is important to note that many of these methods may not work for everyone.


Adding exercise to your lifestyle is one of the best natural ways to boost testosterone. It can help you prevent lifestyle-related conditions like high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. It also helps improve your health, fitness and reaction time.

Fatty fish

Consuming fatty fish is another great way to boost testosterone naturally, as they contain plenty of vitamin D and protein. It’s a good idea to include a variety of fish in your diet, including wild salmon and tuna.


Heavy alcohol consumption can reduce testosterone levels. It can also impair the function of the testicular Sertoli cells that play a critical role in sperm production.

Getting enough sleep

The right amount of sleep is one of the top natural ways to increase testosterone. Men should aim for at least seven hours of rest each night to keep their hormone levels in optimal ranges.

Getting the right amount of sleep is especially important for older men who are experiencing a decline in their body’s ability to produce testosterone naturally. If you’re struggling to get a good night’s rest, consult with a doctor to see if there is an underlying condition that could be contributing to low testosterone. 

Ayurvedic Compounds

The traditional Indian medicine system of Ayurveda aims to prevent illness by maintaining your body's natural balance. It uses a holistic approach that includes diet, exercise, and herbal remedies.

According to Ayurvedic philosophy, the human body is made up of three doshas—vata, pitta, and kapha—that are naturally balanced. When any one of these doshas gets out of balance, it can cause disease. 

Understanding Testosterone Conclusion

Testosterone, which is a male sex hormone, plays an important role in sexual development. It helps boys to develop deep voices, bigger muscles and body hair. It also helps the testes make sperm and speed growth during puberty.

The pituitary gland releases two hormones -- luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) -- that stimulate the testes to produce testosterone. Doctors use a blood test to measure testosterone levels during puberty in boys.

Low testosterone can be caused by several problems, including problems with the testes or the pituitary gland. It may also be due to steroid use or other hormones that affect the production of testosterone.

Besides being an important sex hormone, testosterone also plays an essential role in maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system and helping you lose weight. It also boosts the production of red blood cells, which provides oxygen to your body and organs.

There are a number of ways you can get testosterone, but the most effective way is by taking bioidentical hormones. These are molecularly identical to the hormones your body naturally produces.

Getting your testosterone levels back to a healthy level can help keep you in good health and prevent a range of diseases and conditions, including heart disease. It can also enhance your libido and give you more energy, among other benefits.