What is the Main Cause of Hypogonadism?
by Benjamin Bunting BA(Hons) PGCert
Written by Ben Bunting: BA, PGCert. (Sport & Exercise Nutrition) // British Army Physical Training Instructor // S&C Coach.
The most common causes of hypogonadism are: Reduced functional activity of the gonadal follicles, Deficiency in testosterone, Diabetes mellitus, and autosomal translocations. These may seem like common causes, but in fact, they are all not. Understanding hypogonadism is essential to its diagnosis and treatment. This article covers each of these causes in turn.
Reduced functional activity of the gonads
The term hypogonadism describes a condition in which the genital organs no longer function normally. This condition affects both males and females, and can result in decreased libido, infertility, and osteoporosis. In addition to these physical and emotional effects, hypogonadism can also lead to erectile dysfunction and breast shrinkage. It may even result in a retarded growth and sexual development.
Despite its name, primary or peripheral hypogonadism is the most common cause of hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism is characterized by a deficiency in gonadotropin releasing hormone. This means that the gonads no longer produce any sex steroids. In contrast, in central hypogonadism, a problem with the brain is the cause. Although the pituitary gland is normal, hypogonadism is caused by a defect in the brain's hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Some men develop hypogonadism because of error of sex. Errors of sex development include Klinefelter's syndrome, isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and cryptorchidism. All of these conditions result in reduced sperm counts. Some men experience the symptoms of hypogonadism after puberty. The symptoms may be similar to the ageing process.
Secondary causes of hypogonadism include panhypopituitarism, pituitary tumors, and isolated gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone deficiency. The condition usually resolves on its own once the underlying disorder has been treated. However, a growing number of cancer survivors experience relative hypogonadism.
Although the prevalence of hypogonadism increases with age, the most common causes include obesity, co-morbidity, and overall poor health. Normal aging men exhibit a slight reduction in testosterone levels, but overall aging accounts for a very small percentage of hypogonadism. The incidence of symptomatic hypogonadism varies from 2.1 to 5.7%.
Deficiency in testosterone
The main symptoms of hypogonadism are decreased energy, low libido, and erectile dysfunction. Men with total T levels below 400 ng/dL are often considered hypogonadotropic. Treatments for hypogonadism are associated with various complications, depending on the cause. Some men may be unable to have children due to the condition. Symptoms may also be related to an inherited problem or an injury to the testis.
Deficiency in testosterone is most commonly caused by menopause in women. While menopause occurs naturally in all women, the similar process for men does not occur until the age of 40. As men age, their levels of testosterone fall. In fact, testosterone levels are lower in fifty to sixty-year-old men than they were in their 20s and 30s. While testosterone is a crucial male hormone, it is also essential to maintain healthy levels of it.
The symptoms of hypogonadism vary depending on the age of the patient. In infants, androgen deficiency leads to eunuchoidism, while in prepubertal children, it causes small testes. In males, hypogonadism may result in a high-pitched voice, disproportionately long arms and legs, and decreased libido.
If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention as soon as possible. Treatment can help you prevent many of the risks associated with hypogonadism, such as delayed puberty and osteoporosis. Deficiency in testosterone in men is best diagnosed early to prevent problems with sexual function and prevent the condition from progressing to advanced age. Your doctor will examine your symptoms and perform blood tests to determine the level of testosterone in your body.
Treatment for hypogonadism can include medication. This medication is often given to men to increase testosterone levels and to boost sexual performance. But the side effects of testosterone therapy include baldness, depression, breast tenderness, and breast tenderness. You will need to undergo regular blood tests to monitor the effects of the treatment and to check for any abnormalities. Blood tests may be needed to monitor the levels of testosterone, and blood clots may occur in the process.
Studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and male hypogonadism are associated. Men with T2DM have low testosterone serum levels. Conversely, men with high testosterone serum levels have a lower risk of developing T2DM. Less research has been conducted on the relationship between hypogonadism and pre-diabetes, which is a common clinical condition that precedes T2DM. Both pre-diabetes and T2DM are potential risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. In this review, we will evaluate the effect of anti-diabetic therapy and T treatment on glucose metabolism.
There are various clinical conditions associated with hypogonadism. Although it is unclear what proportion of each contributes to the prevalence of hypogonadism, several factors are thought to play a role. These include genetics, life style issues, and diabetes mellitus. Developing nations such as India must focus on environmental factors and life style factors rather than just disease alone.
In patients with a family history of the condition, genetics may be the primary cause. Genetic disorders such as Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome are also known to increase the risk of gonad damage. Autoimmune disorders, such as liver and adrenal glands, may also affect the gonads. There are also genetic causes of central hypogonadism, known as Kallmann syndrome. These disorders cause the body to produce less testosterone than normal.
Although the risk factors for a symptomatic diagnosis of hypogonadism are unknown, studies show that low testosterone levels are related to common illnesses. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between low testosterone levels and other conditions. Regardless of the cause, treatment options should be discussed with the patient. Hypogonadism and the diseases it leads to are often interrelated.
Primary hypogonadism results from an abnormality in the testis, resulting in low testosterone and high FSH and LH levels. These types of hypogonadism are more common than primary hypogonadism. Primary hypogonadism has several causes, such as a primary defect in testosterone production or a lack of negative feedback from the hypothalamus. It can also be the result of hypoprolactinemia or radiation treatment.
The prevalence of hypogonadism increases with age. However, most cases are related to central obesity, other co-morbidities, or overall poor health. Although aging is a major cause of hypogonadism, only a small percentage of older men exhibit symptomatic symptoms. The incidence of symptomatic hypogonadism is estimated to range from two to five percent of the general population. According to one study, there are about 12.3-11.7 cases of hypogonadism per thousand people per year.
The aetiology does not affect the phenotype of the disorder. However, the age at which hypogonadism is first diagnosed can be a factor in the phenotype. For example, a complete female phenotype may be present at birth, while a mild central defect can lead to delayed puberty. If a child is born with hypogonadism, testosterone therapy may cause the symptoms of hypogonadism.
Although hypogonadism is caused by a lack of testosterone, it can also be inherited. In some cases, this disorder is hereditary, and the severity of the resulting symptoms depends on the stage of development. As men age, the amount of testosterone produced in the ovary and testes decreases. Because of this, men who are affected by this condition often suffer from obesity, diabetes, and kidney disease.
A chromosomal karyotype showed that the proband had an unbalanced Xp-Yq translocation with an extrachromosomal segment attached to the p arm of the X chromosome. The proband's mother also carried the same derivative metacentric X as her son. Furthermore, the proband's father inherited a normal karyotype. For further analysis, CMA was performed on the derivative X chromosome to characterize the defect.