Scientific References

Military Muscle is an all natural vegan testosterone booster food supplement with vitamins, minerals and botanicals.

Cited Studies and Key Sources

Please find below the list of independent, unbiased clinical and scientific referenced sources that support the use of Military Muscle Testosterone Booster Complex.

[1] Age, Disease, and Changing Sex Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men: Results of the Massachusetts Male Aging Study. ANNA GRAY, HENRY A. FELDMAN, JOHN B. MCKINLAY, CHRISTOPHER LONGCOPE The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 73, Issue 5, 1 November 1991, Pages 1016–1025,

[2] Mechanisms of Action of Testosterone — Unraveling a Gordian Knot. David J. Handelsman, M.B., B.S., Ph.D.

[3] Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. Griggs RC, Kingston W, Jozefowicz RF, Herr BE, Forbes G, Halliday D. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) J Appl Physiol (1985). 1989 Jan;66(1):498-503.

[4] Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Nindl BC. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017 Mar 1;122(3):549-558. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00599.2016. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

[5] Testosterone and behavior. Morley JE.  2003 Aug;19(3):605-16.

[6] Loss of Libido. NHS 24.

[7] Male hypogonadism: Symptoms and treatment. Peeyush Kumar, Nitish Kumar, Devendra Singh Thakur, Ajay Patidar. . 2010 Jul-Sep; 1(3): 297–301.doi: 10.4103/0110-5558.72420

[8] Bioavailable testosterone and depressed mood in older men: the Rancho Bernardo Study. Barrett-Connor E, Von Muhlen, Kritz-Silverstin D.  1999 Feb;84(2):573-7.

[9] Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Harman SMMetter EJTobin JDPearson JBlackman MRBaltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging 2001 Feb;86(2):724-31.

[10] Understanding How Testosterone Affects Men. September 23, 2013. Harrison Wein, Ph.D

[11] Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence. Traish AM. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Oct;21(5):313-22. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000086. Review. PMID: 25105998

[12] Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management. Fui MN, Dupuis P, Grossmann M. Asian J Androl. 2014 Mar-Apr;16(2):223-31. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.122365. Review. PMID: 24407187

[13] Endotoxin-initiated inflammation reduces testosterone production in men of reproductive age.

[14] Testosterone, and winning and losing in human competition. Booth A, Shelley G, Mazur A, Tharp G, Kittok R.Horm Behav. 1989 Dec;23(4):556-71. PMID: 2606468

[15] Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man. Batrinos ML. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Summer;10(3):563-8. doi: 10.5812/ijem.3661. Epub 2012 Jun 30. PMID: 23843821

[16] Testosterone and dominance in men. Mazur A, Booth A. Behav Brain Sci. 1998 Jun;21(3):353-63; discussion 363-97. Review. PMID: 10097017

[17] Revisiting the role of testosterone: Are we missing something? Tyagi V, Scordo M, Yoon RS, Liporace FA, Greene LW. Rev Urol. 2017;19(1):16-24. PMID: 28522926

[18] Benefits and Consequences of Testosterone Replacement Therapy: A Review. As P, Nn T, Ka O, Jc H. Eur Endocrinol. 2013 Mar;9(1):59-64. doi: 10.17925/EE.2013.09.01.59. Epub 2013 Mar 15. Review. PMID: 30349612

[19] Testosterone: a vascular hormone in health and disease. Journal of Endocrinology. Volume 217: Issue 3.

[20] Chronic Inflammation. Roma Pahwa; Ishwarlal Jialal.

[21] The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Testosterone. Bianchi VE. J Endocr Soc. 2018 Oct 22;3(1):91-107. doi: 10.1210/js.2018-00186. eCollection 2019 Jan 1. Review. PMID: 30582096

[22] Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial. Ng Tang Fui M, Prendergast LA, Dupuis P, Raval M, Strauss BJ, Zajac JD, Grossmann M. BMC Med. 2016 Oct 7;14(1):153. PMID: 27716209

[23] Testosterone Threshold Levels and Lean Tissue Mass Targets Needed to Enhance Skeletal Muscle Strength and Function: The HORMA Trial. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 66A, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 122–129, Published: 08 November 2010

[24] Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study. Rasmussen JJ, Selmer C, Østergren PB, Pedersen KB, Schou M, Gustafsson F, Faber J, Juul A, Kistorp C. PLoS One. 2016 Aug 17;11(8):e0161208. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161208. eCollection 2016. PMID: 27532478

[25] Anabolic Steroid Effect on the Liver.  Niedfeldt MW. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2018 Mar;17(3):97-102. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000467. Review. PMID: 29521706

[26] Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility. El Osta R, Almont T, Diligent C, Hubert N, Eschwège P, Hubert J. Basic Clin Androl. 2016 Feb 6;26:2. doi: 10.1186/s12610-016-0029-4. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26855782

[27] Loss of Circadian Rhythmicity in Blood Testosterone Levels with Aging in Normal Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 56, Issue 6, 1 June 1983, Pages 1278–1281. Published: 01 June 1983

[28] The Effects of Supraphysiologic Doses of Testosterone on Muscle Size and Strength in Normal Men. July 4, 1996. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1-7. 

[29] Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Michael F. Holick, Tai C. Chen. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 87, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 1080S–1086S

[30] Association between plasma 25‐OH vitamin D and testosterone levels in men. Katharina Nimptsch, Elizabeth A. Platz, Walter C. Willett, Edward Giovannucci. Clinical Endocrinology.

[31] A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults. Chandrasekhar K, Kapoor J, Anishetty S. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul;34(3):255-62. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.106022.

[32] Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial. Wankhede S, Langade D, Joshi K, Sinha SR, Bhattacharyya S. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Nov 25;12:43. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0104-9. eCollection 2015.

[33] The effects of a commercially available botanical supplement on strength, body composition, power output, and hormonal profiles in resistance-trained males. Poole C, Bushey B, Foster C, Campbell B, Willoughby D, Kreider R, Taylor L, Wilborn C. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Oct 27;7:34. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-7-34.

[34] Physiological aspects of male libido enhanced by standardized Trigonella foenum-graecum extract and mineral formulation. Steels E, Rao A, Vitetta L. Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1294-300. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3360. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

[35] Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Prasad AS, Mantzoros CS, Beck FW, Hess JW, Brewer GJ. Nutrition. 1996 May;12(5):344-8.

[36] Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. Naghii MR, Mofid M, Asgari AR, Hedayati M, Daneshpour MS. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2011 Jan;25(1):54-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

[37] Nothing Boring About Boron. Pizzorno L. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Aug;14(4):35-48. Review.

[38] Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005; WHO Global Database of anaemia. Bruno de Benoist world health organization Geneva, Switzerland, Erin McLean world health organization Geneva, Switzerland, Ines Egli Institute of food science and nutrition, ETH – Zurich, Switzerland, Mary Cogswell centers for disease control and prevention Atlanta, Georgia.

[39] Iron Status and Sports Performance. Clement, D.B. & Sawchuk, L.L. Sports Medicine (1984) 1: 65.

[40] Vitamin A and iron supplementation is as efficient as hormonal therapy in constitutionally delayed children. Zadik Z, Sinai T, Zung A, Reifen R. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2004 Jun;60(6):682-7.

[41] The effect of nutritional factors on sex hormone levels in male twins. Bishop DT, Meikle AW, Slattery ML, Stringham JD, Ford MH, West DW. Genet Epidemiol. 1988;5(1):43-59.

[42] Geranylgeraniol enhances testosterone production via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in testis-derived I-10 tumor cells.  Hsin-Jung Ho, Hitoshi Shirakawa, Risa Yoshia, Asagi Ito, Misato Maeda, Tomoko Goto, Michio Komai. Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry. Volume 80, 2016 - Issue 4.

[43] Dietary Intake of Menaquinone Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Rotterdam Study. Johanna M. Geleijnse, Cees Vermeer, Diederick E. Grobbee, Leon J. Schurgers, Marjo H. J. Knapen, Irene M. van der Meer, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C. M. Witteman. The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 11, November 2004, Pages 3100–3105.

[44] Vitamin K and Bone Metabolism: A Review of the Latest Evidence in Preclinical Studies. Akbari S, Rasouli-Ghahroudi AA. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Jun 27;2018:4629383. doi: 10.1155/2018/4629383. eCollection 2018. Review.

[45] Highlights on nutritional and therapeutic value of stinging nettle (Urtica Dioica). Amal Ait Haj Said, Sanae Derfoufi, Adnane Benmoussa. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(10):8-14 · January 2015.

[46] Aromatase Inhibitors from Urtica dioica Roots. Dietmar Granber, Gerhard Spiteller. Lehrstuhl Organische Chemie I, Universität Bayreuth, NW I, Universitätsstraße 30, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany.

[47] Leisegang, K., Finelli, R., Sikka, S.C. and Panner Selvam, M.K. (2022). Eurycoma longifolia (Jack) Improves Serum Total Testosterone in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Medicina, 58(8), p.1047. doi:‌

[48] Talbott, S.M., Talbott, J.A., George, A. and Pugh, M. (2013). Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, [online] 10, p.28. doi:‌

[49] Mucuna pruriens improves male fertility by its action on the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. Kamla Kant Shukla M.Sc., Abbas Ali Mahdi M.Phil PhD, Mohammad Kaleem Ahmad M.Sc., Satya Narain Shankhwar M.Ch., Singh Rajender PhD., Shyam Pyari Jaiswar M.S. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility and Sterility. Volume 92, Issue 6, Pages 1934-1940.

[50]Prolactinoma. University of Rochester Medicine. 

[51] Testosterone and Male Health: The Elixir of Life?

[52] Endogenous Testosterone and Mortality in Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Andre B. Araujo, Julia M. Dixon, Elizabeth A. Suarez, M. Hassan Murad, Lin T. Guey, Gary A. Wittert. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 96, Issue 10, 1 October 2011, Pages 3007–3019