The Role of Estradiol in the Maintenance of Secondary Hypogonadism in Males

Written by Ben Bunting: BA, PGCert. (Sport & Exercise Nutrition) // British Army Physical Training Instructor // S&C Coach.


Estradiol is a crucial hormone in early sexual development. It influences every step of the male sexual response cycle, including ejaculation and erection.

It also affects mood, emotion, and cognition.

Estradiol plays a critical role in early sexual development

The role of estradiol in male sexual function is still poorly understood, but the complex interaction between testosterone and estrogen is a well-established biological principle.

In males, estradiol regulates critical biological processes, including libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis.

This hormonal interaction is a crucial part of early sexual development. In addition, estradiol influences serotonin receptors in the brain, which affect mood and cognition.

There is also evidence that estrogen plays a crucial role in the male brain.

Studies have shown that local production of estradiol in the cerebellum is important for regulating the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which stabilizes vision.

Estradiol also improves spatial memory in females and male mice through the ERa/ERb pathway. More studies will likely reveal more roles of estrogen in the CNS.

In males, estradiol is required for normal bone growth and development.

Nevertheless, in males with secondary hypogonadism, endogenous estrogen failed to suppress the hormones responsible for promoting ovulation.

Estradiol inhibits Leydig and Sertoli cells and stimulates germ cells. These changes lead to underproduction of testosterone in the testis.

Although this condition is rare, the presence of the hormone can be the underlying cause of secondary hypogonadism.

Studies of the fetal and infant hormones have shown that estradiol and testosterone levels increase between the second and third trimester of pregnancy.

These hormones also influence the development of sexually dimorphic brains.

Studies have shown that serum levels of testosterone and estradiol during minipuberty are significantly related to body weight and skin-fold thickness.

This finding suggests that the levels of these hormones may affect later cognitive and somatic development.

It affects mood

The study, which included both men and women, assessed the effects of hypogonadism and sex steroid replacement on mood.

Although sexual function was not the primary outcome, researchers were interested in how hypogonadism affected sexual function.

The results of the study showed that both men and women with hypogonadism experienced a significant decline in sexual function.

Estradiol has been implicated in the regulation of sexual motivation in humans and animals.

Previous studies on the topic included studies performed by Wallen and colleagues in 1990 and 2001.

The authors also analyzed the effects of hypogonadism on the sexual function of women after oophorectomy or postmenopause.

Among the women, those who underwent surgical treatment for hypogonadism showed a significantly lower libido than women who experienced natural menopause.

Researchers found that estrogen, as well as progestins, affected men and women's moods.

In fact, 35% of women and 40% of men experienced significant changes in mood. Overall, their DISF scores decreased by 50% or more during hypogonadism.

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome characterized by low levels of testosterone in the blood. It can be the result of age-related loss of function of the testis or the result of trauma to the testes.

Researchers have studied the role of estrogen in the maintenance of secondary hypogonadia in males.

This hormone is responsible for sexuality. Men who take prescription medications to treat menopause experience lower levels of testosterone and estradiol.

In contrast, men with low levels of baseline DISF scores did not show a significant change in their DISF scores during hypogonadism.

While men with high levels of baseline DISF scores experienced a significant decrease in their DISF scores during hypogonodism and a rise in their DISF scores after T replacement, men with low baseline DISF scores showed no significant change in their DISF scores during E and P.

It affects cognition

Estradiol is a hormone that affects fertility and sexual function in males. It is also believed to affect mood.

While its relationship with mood is unclear, it is known that it affects cognition. It converts into estrogen through the action of aromatase enzymes.

The treatment of male hypogonadism is currently a testosterone replacement therapy.

But this treatment is not suitable for many patients, including those with prostate cancer, severe cardiovascular disease, or polycythemia. Alternative treatment options are also available.

Testing serum testosterone is a key part of the diagnosis. It can help to determine if a man is experiencing symptoms of hypogonadism and if he is consistently low in serum T concentrations.

A reliable assay is necessary to determine the exact concentration of testosterone. Serum testosterone levels should be measured in the morning at least three times before fasting.

Secondary hypogonadism is a condition in which sperm and testosterone are not produced in enough quantities.

This can impact fertility, which plays a vital role in puberty. Both primary and secondary hypogonadism result from a malfunction of the hypothalamus, which is responsible for signaling the testes to produce testosterone.

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It affects emotion

Hypogonadism is a disorder in which the testis fails to produce enough testosterone and sperm to support a male's reproductive system.

It is often accompanied by low mood and decreased strength. Studies have linked this disorder to obesity, osteoporosis, and metabolic syndrome.

Men with hypogonadism may experience decreased sexual desire, depression, and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

The causes of secondary hypogonadism are not fully understood. Some of the factors that lead to it include long-acting opioids used for chronic pain.

These drugs suppress the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus. However, this is only a part of the problem.

A combination of secondary and primary hypogonadism can result in low testosterone.

This condition is characterized by low levels of testosterone and low FSH. In some cases, hormonal stimulation can cure the condition. In other cases, treatment is necessary.

However, there are risks involved, such as those associated with alcoholism and sickle-cell disease.

Estradiol affects mood, which may have an impact on sexual interest. In males, this hormone can increase or decrease libido.

It is also known to affect the brain's serotonin receptors. This affects mood and cognition.

It affects erectile function

Various factors contribute to normal sexual function, including hormonal, neurophysiological, and vascular ones.

In approximately 75 percent of cases, erectile dysfunction is caused by organic causes, and many of these are related to aging and other cardiovascular risk factors. 

The main objective of the present study was to determine whether tadalafil and estrogen therapy affect erectile function in males.

A study by El-Sakka and colleagues found that low testosterone and high estrogen levels were independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction.

Another study by Emanuela Greco and colleagues examined changes in sex hormones after 12 months of tadalafil treatment.

They found that the levels of testosterone and estradiol significantly decreased with both treatments.

Although estradiol is not commonly prescribed in clinical practice, studies have shown that it can affect sexual function.

In patients with hypogonadism, high estradiol levels can aggravate erectile dysfunction symptoms, even though the testosterone levels are normal.

In these patients, testosterone and estradiol ratios can serve as predictive factors for effective hypogonadism treatment.

Testosterone supplementation increases the therapeutic efficacy of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors in older men.

It may also improve erectile function and improve overall quality of life. For ageing men with partial hypogonadism, androgen replacement may help restore erectile function.

Secondary hypogonadism in males is a clinical condition characterized by low testosterone levels.

There are several causes of adult-onset hypogonadism. These include dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and testicular failure.

In addition, a hypogonadal man may also exhibit symptoms of sexual dysfunction, such as delayed ejaculation and decreased semen volume.


Secondary hypogonadism in males is a disorder of the hypothalamus that causes an underactive gonadotropin system.

It can cause a man to be fertile but unable to produce enough sperm for a child. This condition can also lead to delayed puberty and decreased libido.

Treatment of secondary hypogonadism in men usually involves pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone replacement therapy.

This treatment is very effective and works in 80 to 90 percent of cases. Doctors can also differentiate between primary hypogonadism and secondary hypogonadism by measuring the levels of FSH and LH.

Estrogens have a fundamental role in regulating the body fat content, sexual function, and bone metabolism. Because of these roles, estradiol deficiency may contribute to key consequences of male hypogonadism.

A primary form of hypogonadism is called hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The pituitary gland produces higher levels of gonadotropins in response to low levels of testosterone.

This response would normally cause the testicles to produce more testosterone. However, if one or both testicles are damaged, the pituitary gland will not respond to higher levels of gonadotropins and thus cause hypogonadism.

This study also demonstrates the impact of estradiol on erectile function.

The results of this study suggest that serum levels of estrogen are associated with the symptoms of aging in males and may play a role in erectile dysfunction.

However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings with molecular tools.


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