Testosterone Booster Foods
by Benjamin Bunting BA(Hons) PGCert
Written by Ben Bunting: BA, PGCert. (Sport & Exercise Nutrition) // British Army Physical Training Instructor // S&C Coach.
Nutrition is a very important part of maintaining a healthy lifestyle and for building muscle.
Many people are deficient in various nutrients due to a typical Western Diet which is high in saturated fats, sugars, salt, refined and processed foods, that's why we load Military Muscle with the nutrients your body craves to stimulate testosterone and muscle growth.
In this article we look at the foods that can help boost testosterone, so make sure you inlcude them in your diet. We shall cover the following areas:
- Low fat milk
- Fortified cereals
- Porridge oats
Introduction to hormones and food
As men and women age their hormone levels change , testosterone is present in both genders but since men have more of its depletion is more noticeable (you can read more about changing testosterone levels by age, here).
Still, reduced testosterone levels in women can also affect your health and wellbeing.  Luckily there are some natural solutions to this hormonal reduction which can help improve your testosterone production so you can reap the benefits.
For men, the signs of a change in your hormone levels can be a reduced sex drive, erectile dysfunction, and loss of body hair; you might also feel tired and fatigued more often and experience symptoms of depression. 
The good news is you don't have to take prescription medication, you can optimize your diet with the testosterone boosting superfoods below.
Tuna, along with other seafoods such as salmon and sardines, is high in vitamin D, the testosterone producing vitamin. 
Vitamin D enters the kidneys where it is turned into Calcitriol, this is the hormone that stimulates muscle protein synthesis for more muscle growth, strength, and reduces body fat.  Testosterone is associated with men but women can also benefit.
Tuna can be consumed in several ways. You can buy fresh Tuna from the seafood counter in the supermarket and pan-fry it or grill it on the BBQ. This is known as Tuna Steak. Alternatively you can buy it canned and put it on lunchtime sandwiches for convenience.
Tuna is high in natural vitamin D that is linked to longer life and higher testosterone production. Eating Tuna regularly will boost your testosterone levels and provide you with enough vitamin D for your daily requirements.
Be aware, however, seafood contains Mercury so moderate your intake to two or three servings per week. Or you could try a supplement.
Most people like a bit of garlic in moderation, it can be nice on Italian pasta, for instance, or for cooking meat dishes in the frying pan. But if you're interested in raising your testosterone levels naturally garlic is also useful. It doesn't raise testosterone levels directly, instead it affects the production of cortisol. 
Both cortisol and testosterone are produced on the adrenal gland. When the body is stressed due to physical activity, or stressed emotionally, more cortisol is produced in the gland affecting the many of the body's functions including the production of testosterone.  It follows that reducing cortisol levels increases testosterone production.
Garlic is not a testosterone boosting food on its own, rather it is a cortisol reducer that increases the testosterone levels in the body.
So if you want to raise your testosterone levels naturally and without supplements then look up some delicious garlic-infused recipes for lunch or dinner.
Low-fat milk with vitamin D
Milk is an excellent source of protein, calcium and vitamin D, but it can also help to regulate testosterone levels in men and women. Particularly as vitamin D when paired with calcium helps your body absorb calcium better. 
The calcium in milk is excellent for the bones, it helps them to grow and strengthen, we already know vitamin D is great for testosterone but a study published in 2008 also shows that calcium when combined with training can increase testosterone levels. 
Milk can be consumed in many ways. You can put it on your cereal in the morning, drink it in your tea, or make healthy smoothies with it that boosts your health in other ways too. It doesn't really matter how you consume your milk, it should have the same testosterone-boosting effect, just make sure it is low fat or skimmed milk.
Low Fat or semi-skimmed milk has the same number of nutrients as whole milk but it doesn't have the saturated fat. Saturated fats raise LDL cholesterol in the blood which contributes to health conditions and increases the chances of a heart attack or a stroke. 
One of the easiest ways to boost your testosterone levels naturally is to supplement your diet with eggs. Eggs are a rich source of protein and vitamin D making them the ideal complement to a workout diet. 
Eating eggs post-workout helps your muscles repair and increase the testosterone in your body. 
People who want to increase testosterone in their body usually want to increase their muscle mass, build stronger bones, improve their libido or their verbal memory and spatial abilities. Testosterone can be taken artificially but if you want a healthy body balance, natural boost foods are a good idea.
Eggs are high in vitamin D which contributes to higher levels of testosterone in the body, they are also delicious and easy to integrate into a diet. If you work out it's best to have your eggs after the gym or your sporting activity to take advantage of the extra protein, otherwise, eat them any time of the day.
Even men with high levels of testosterone will experience a drop off as they age.  This is normal, but it can be regulated with hormone boosting natural foods like fortified cereals. Unlike eggs, fortified cereals don't naturally contain high levels of vitamin D, it tends to be added.
Cereals contain many important nutrients like fiber, protein, iron, vitamin B, vitamin E, niacin, and thiamine. But, many cereals are also "fortified" with vitamin D which directly boost the testosterone levels in the body via the kidney mechanism. Furthermore, there are studies showing iron's beneficial effects on testosterone, too.  Eating fortified cereals in the morning is an excellent way to boost other key nutrients as well.
It's beneficial to have more testosterone in your body especially if you are an older man whose levels are in decline. Testosterone will regulate the libido (sex drive), increase bone mass, create a better fat distribution, build muscles mass and increase your red blood cells and your sperm count.
Zinc is an "essential" nutrient. This means that the body doesn't naturally produce or store zinc, it always comes from the diet. During puberty, zinc plays an important role in regulating the male hormone testosterone and continues to carry out this function into adulthood. Zinc is found in many foods such as cereals and oysters. You can find out more about zinc, here.
If you have low testosterone levels in your body you might experience symptoms that include reduced muscle mass, lower sex drive, erectile dysfunction, hot flashes and difficulty concentrating.  It isn't fully understood how zinc increases T-levels but studies show it has this effect. 
Oysters might be considered a rare delicacy but they don't have to be, especially if you have low T-levels. Oysters are very high in zinc and zinc has a strong correlation to the regulation and increase of testosterone levels, so if you needed an excuse to eat posh oysters, this is it. If not, our vegan supplement can help!
Almonds are a tree nut that is native to Iran and the Middle East, it is a very popular nut and widely cultivated. Almonds are extremely healthy, containing many healthy fats, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals which contribute to a healthy hormone balance. They can be eaten loose, with oatmeal in the morning, and in many other dishes and meals.
As with oysters, almonds contain high levels of zinc that interact with testosterone hormones and contributes to increased levels of it.  Since it is one of the body's essential minerals you have to find a way to get enough of it into your diet – eating almonds as a snack is an excellent viable option.
You can buy almonds locally at your supermarket in small snack bags or large kg ones. You can get them in a salted or roasted variety as well, but the wholefoods version is better because you get good value for money and the nuts are more wholesome and nutrient-rich.
If you suffer from erectile dysfunction (ED) there may be a range of causes that you can explore with your health care professional. Often, this will mean experimenting with your diet and including more testosterone-boosting foods like shellfish. Often this issue is the result of low levels of zinc and vitamin D in your diet. 
Erectile dysfunction may not be the only issue you have if you have low zinc levels in your diet. Zinc is an essential nutrient that's used by the body to metabolise nutrients and produce DNA and protein synthesis. It helps with cell division.  In men, zinc contributes to testosterone production which can affect erections.
Shellfish such as crab and lobster are very high in zinc and a good source of it for your body system. Like other forms of seafood, shellfish are high in zinc and make a delicious meal as well. According to some sources, shellfish such as Alaskan King Crab has 43% of your daily zinc intake in a single 3-ounce serving.
It isn't only the meat and eggs that work well to boost your testosterone levels, the greens have got something to offer as well, in particular, spinach. If you have low testosterone levels you might experience a low sex drive, a loss of body hair, and reduces amounts of muscle mass. Fatigue is also a symptom. 
Spinach is one of the world's superfoods and Popeye the sailor’s food of choice which is why he was so strong and heroic. The idea was used in the character to encourage children to eat and enjoy their spinach which contains high amounts of magnesium, iron, and vitamin B6.
Magnesium is an important nutrient for many functions of the body including optimising muscle and nerve functions, regulating blood and glucose levels and increasing testosterone levels.  Like zinc, the precise mechanism for T-increase is not known but studies indicate increased hormone levels.
Beef is a popular food source in many parts of the world and especially in the summer months during bbq season. Although it is popular and healthy in many respects there are also concerns about the overconsumption of beef which can lead to certain cancers such as colon cancer.
Still, beef has very high nutritional values too, especially when it comes to testosterone boosting nutrients. Lot's of meat that isn't processed (i.e burger patties, sauages) can be low in fat and sodium, whilst containing anti-oxidants and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.
Like many of the testosterone-boosting foods on the list, beef is a strong source of vitamin D, it also contains high levels of zinc, iron and creatine. 
It can be tempting to overload on meats but be sure that you eat the leanest cuts to avoid unwanted fats, and remember that it is generally considered that the maximum amount of protein that can be utilized for muscle protein synthesis in one sitting is about 20-25g, so eating way more doesn't necessarily mean more muscle growth. 
Porridge oats are a popular superfood that has been used for thousands of years in human diets, we know this because oats have been found in the stomachs of 5,000-year-old neolithic, bodies in Central Europe and Scandinavia. They must have known the nutritional values of it even if they didn't have the science.
Porridge oats are excellent testosterone boosting food because they contain several B vitamins that are key in the production of testosterone in the adrenal gland. Vitamin B6 is particularly useful for boosting T-levels because of the way it suppresses estrogen production leaving more space for testosterone. 
The best time to eat porridge oats is in the early or late morning. This breakfast meal is filling and lasts for hours as your body works to break down the slow-release carbohydrates. It is also an excellent source of fiber and great for your digestion. Don't forget to add plenty of fruits and nuts to boost other nutrients in your diet.
Beans are not only one of the world's superfoods, they are also cheap to buy, easy to access and work nicely on a range of meals including pasta dishes, rice dishes, wraps, and salads. Types of beans include legumes, fava beans, fayot beans, red beans, Lima beans, and mung beans.
Beans are small and seem like an addition to your meals, but they are so packed full of nutritional goodness that you could survive on them alone. As well as these beans are packed with vitamin D, iron, magnesium and zinc which boost your testosterone levels in the adrenal gland. 
Beans are very versatile and they can be used in meals at any time of the day, even breakfast. If you want to increase your testosterone levels in your daily life then introduce beans to your cooked breakfast, your lunchtime wrap or the side salad of your evening meal.
So far there are no testosterone-boosting fruits on the list but that is about to change. Lemons are not only an excellent source of vitamins A and C but they also have tremendous anti-oxidant effects. Lemons are another excellent food to include in your diet that have proven to improve mood and cognitive performance. 
If you have symptoms of low T-levels or you want to further increase your levels.
Lemons work in the same way as garlic, they help to lower your cortisol levels in the adrenal gland which allows more testosterone to be produced. A study published in 2019 studying the effects of lemon peel on age related testosterone deficiencies found that the lemon can improve the changes. 
Although lemons are bitter it is very easy to consume them. They can be squeezed to produce lemon juice or added to tea in the morning in slices. You can also add lemon juice to cooked foods like stir-fry and sweets like lemon doughnuts, curd and risotto.
As with Tuna, Salmon is a very rich source of vitamins and nutrients. Salmon are big fish that are plentiful in the summer following their breeding season. There are various types of salmon such as Atlantic Salmon, Pink Salmon, and Black Sea Salmon, they differ in size and taste.
If the salmon you buy is of good quality it will contain high levels of magnesium, vitamin B, Omega-3, and Coenzyme Q10 which has shown to improve hormone levels, particularly those who are suffering from low testosterone.  
As well as all of the excellent qualities that salmon offers it is also flavoursome and versatile. There are many ways you can cook salmon such as pan-frying, roasting, grilling, poaching, and baking. Salmon can be enjoyed all year round.
Bananas, along with lemons, are one of the other fruits to make the list. They are convenient, healthy, tasty, and give your T-levels and boost on the go. If you want an easy snack that gives you energy for your workouts and contributes to your increased T-level diet, then bananas should be a staple.
Bananas are actually a superfood themselves. They contain complex carbs, potassium, and calcium that can help enrich your glycogen stores. They also have fiber and a small amount of protein, making them a great pre or post exercise snack. 
The reason they are so good for testosterone levels is because of ascorbic acid which is also found in lemon that plays a role in testosterone and male fertility as outlined in a study from 2016. 
Many of the super T-boosting foods on the list are food you would incorporate into your mealtime diets. But bananas are more flexible and versatile, they can be used between mealtime to boost your energy levels and add to your overall testosterone levels.
A great accompaniment to any meal, and now you have an even greater reason to add them to your salad, sandwiches and omelettes. They contain a wide variety of vitamins and minerals as well as omega-3, if not in large amounts
However, more importantly, in this context, there is evidence shwoing that onions increase the production of luteinizing hormone, also increase the antioxidant levels in the testis and reduce free radicals which all contribute to an increase of testosterone. 
Possibly not a food that you'd want to snack on waiting for a train or sat in your car at the lights, but it can be used to help flavor dishes or even drinks, not that we would recommend drinking alcoholic cocktails (although we are partial to one or two ourselves), but ginger is versitile.
Not only can it give your diet a kick, it is also able to enhance luteinizing hormone production (just like onions), reducing oxidative stress, improving nitric oxide which ghelps to increase blood flow to the leydig cells in the testicles which produce testosterone. 
Fancy that big T-Bone steak for your evening meal? Why not boost your nutrient intake with a side dish of asparagus happy in the knoewledge that it contains d-aspartic acid?
Aspartic acid plays a role in hormone production and male fertility , furthermore, they're a source of plant protein, fiber, carbohydrate plus a wide range of vitamins and minerals such as magnesium, iron, calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin K and a host of amino acids. 
It is safe to say asparagus should feature in at least one meal per week.
Great to add to toast, your bagel, porridge or even with hot lemon in a drink - especially if you are felling a bit ill.
Yet, preliminary research in to honey's effects on testosterone production may urge you to ensure you tap in to natures luxury more often.
A meta-analysis of the available research found that honey does indeed increase serum testosterone levels, and this is down to reducing testicular oxidation rates, and enhancing the viability of leydig cells. 
If you have signs and symptoms of low testosterone levels such as a low libido, erectile dysfunction, the loss of body hair or muscle mass or fatigue, your lifestyle might benefit from a testosterone boosting diet.
Using some of the foods in this article you can make a meal plan that will boost your testosterone levels naturally and improve your quality of life.
Now, please do not just start eating nothing but the foods listed in this article and then expect huge changes, however, try incorporating them, many can be paired well with each other.
Porridge, honey and a banana would make a solid breakfast. Onions, asparagus and some beef would be a fantastic dinner, let's not forget the absolute staple of a tuna sandwich for lunch, but why not add some spinach and then snack on almonds?
Fed up of foul tasting and coarse protein powders after the gym? There's nothing better than a bottle or carton of fat free milk, and for that added boost, option for the one fortified with vitamin D, you can always add some no or low calorie flavor syrup as well.
Then there's always sushi if you want something a bit light as a meal, this would then combine tuna and salmon in oe dish, and tastes great.
 Greenblatt, R.B., Oettinger, M. and Bohler, C.S. (1976). Estrogen-androgen levels in aging men and women: therapeutic considerations. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, [online] 24(4), pp.173–178. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1254880/ [Accessed 31 May 2021].
 Bu.edu. (2020). Testosterone insufficiency in women: fact or fiction?» Sexual Medicine» BUMC. [online] Available at: https://www.bumc.bu.edu/sexualmedicine/publications/testosterone-insufficiency-in-women-fact-or-fiction/.
 Pilz, S., Frisch, S., Koertke, H., Kuhn, J., Dreier, J., Obermayer-Pietsch, B., Wehr, E. and Zittermann, A. (2011). Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme, [online] 43(3), pp.223–5. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21154195 [Accessed 23 Jan. 2020].
 Książek, A., Zagrodna, A. and Słowińska-Lisowska, M. (2019). Vitamin D, Skeletal Muscle Function and Athletic Performance in Athletes—A Narrative Review. Nutrients, 11(8), p.1800. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31382666/
 Hwang, Kyung-A., Hwang, Y.-J., Hwang, I.-G., Song, J. and Jun Kim, Y. (2019). Low temperature-aged garlic extract suppresses psychological stress by modulation of stress hormones and oxidative stress response in brain. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA, [online] 82(3), pp.191–195. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30908412/ [Accessed 31 May 2021].
 Brownlee, K.K., Moore, A.W. and Hackney, A.C. (2005). Relationship between circulating cortisol and testosterone: influence of physical exercise. Journal of sports science & medicine, [online] 4(1), pp.76–83. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3880087/.
 Christakos, S., Dhawan, P., Porta, A., Mady, L.J. and Seth, T. (2011). Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, [online] 347(1-2), pp.25–29. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405161/.
 Cinar, V., Baltaci, A.K., Mogulkoc, R. and Kilic, M. (2008). Testosterone Levels in Athletes at Rest and Exhaustion: Effects of Calcium Supplementation. Biological Trace Element Research, 129(1-3), pp.65–69.
 Lordan, R., Tsoupras, A., Mitra, B. and Zabetakis, I. (2018). Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned? Foods, 7(3), p.29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867544/
 van Vliet, S., Shy, E.L., Abou Sawan, S., Beals, J.W., West, D.W., Skinner, S.K., Ulanov, A.V., Li, Z., Paluska, S.A., Parsons, C.M., Moore, D.R. and Burd, N.A. (2017). Consumption of whole eggs promotes greater stimulation of postexercise muscle protein synthesis than consumption of isonitrogenous amounts of egg whites in young men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(6), pp.1401–1412. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28978542/
 Pearce, K.L. and Tremellen, K. (2019). The Effect of Macronutrients on Reproductive Hormones in Overweight and Obese Men: A Pilot Study. Nutrients, [online] 11(12). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950136/ [Accessed 25 Feb. 2021].
 Harman, S.M., Metter, E.J., Tobin, J.D., Pearson, J. and Blackman, M.R. (2001). Longitudinal Effects of Aging on Serum Total and Free Testosterone Levels in Healthy Men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 86(2), pp.724–731. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11158037/
 Chao, K.-C., Chang, C.-C., Chiou, H.-Y. and Chang, J.-S. (2015). Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan. PLOS ONE, 10(12), p.e0144238. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0144238
 Rizk, P.J., Kohn, T.P., Pastuszak, A.W. and Khera, M. (2017). Testosterone therapy improves erectile function and libido in hypogonadal men. Current Opinion in Urology, [online] 27(6), pp.511–515. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5649360/ [Accessed 3 Jan. 2020].
 Beauchet, O. (2006). Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship. European Journal of Endocrinology, [online] 155(6), pp.773–781. Available at: https://eje.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/eje/155/6/1550773.xml#:~:text=Both%20aromatase%20and%20androgen%20receptors [Accessed 17 Feb. 2021].
 Prasad, A.S., Mantzoros, C.S., Beck, F.W.J., Hess, J.W. and Brewer, G.J. (1996). Zinc status and serum testosterone levels of healthy adults. Nutrition, 12(5), pp.344–348. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8875519/
 fdc.nal.usda.gov. (n.d.). FoodData Central. [online] Available at: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/170567/nutrients.
 Ahn, S.T., Kim, S.W., Kim, J.W., Kim, J.J. and Moon, D.G. (2019). 196 The Efficacy of Vitamin D/Zinc Supplementation on Erectile Dysfunction: A 3-month Pilot Study. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, [online] 16(4), pp.S96–S97. Available at: https://www.jsm.jsexmed.org/article/S1743-6095(19)30206-1/fulltext [Accessed 31 May 2021].
 MacDonald, R.S. (2000). The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation. The Journal of nutrition, [online] 130(5S Suppl), pp.1500S8S. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10801966.
 Rivas, A.M., Mulkey, Z., Lado-Abeal, J. and Yarbrough, S. (2014). Diagnosing and managing low serum testosterone. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), [online] 27(4), pp.321–324. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4255853/ [Accessed 1 Jun. 2021].
 Maggio, M., De Vita, F., Lauretani, F., Nouvenne, A., Meschi, T., Ticinesi, A., Dominguez, L.J., Barbagallo, M., Dall’Aglio, E. and Ceda, G.P. (2014). The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in Men. International Journal of Endocrinology, [online] 2014, pp.1–9. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3958794/ [Accessed 31 Oct. 2019].
 Online, R. and Williams, P. (2007). Nutritional composition of red meat Nutritional composition of red meat. [online] . Available at: https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=hbspapers.
 Areta, J.L., Burke, L.M., Ross, M.L., Camera, D.M., West, D.W.D., Broad, E.M., Jeacocke, N.A., Moore, D.R., Stellingwerff, T., Phillips, S.M., Hawley, J.A. and Coffey, V.G. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. The Journal of Physiology, 591(9), pp.2319–2331. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650697/
 Symes, E.K., Bender, D.A., Bowden, J.F. and Coulson, W.F. (1984). Increased target tissue uptake of, and sensitivity to, testosterone in the vitamin B6 deficient rat. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry, [online] 20(5), pp.1089–1093. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6727359/ [Accessed 1 Jun. 2021].
 Garden-Robinson, J. and McNeal, K. (2010). All About Beans Nutrition, Health Benefits, Preparation and Use in Menus — Publications. [online] Ndsu.edu. Available at: https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/food-nutrition/all-about-beans-nutrition-health-benefits-preparation-and-use-in-menus.
 Scholey, A., Gibbs, A., Neale, C., Perry, N., Ossoukhova, A., Bilog, V., Kras, M., Scholz, C., Sass, M. and Buchwald-Werner, S. (2014). Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods. Nutrients, [online] 6(11), pp.4805–4821. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/11/4805/htm.
 Comparative Study Between Lemon Peel Extract and Testosterone Supplementation on the Hippocampus of Orchiectomized Rat. (2019). AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF BASIC AND APPLIED SCIENCES. http://www.ajbasweb.com/old/ajbas/2019/June/62-73(7).pdf
 Saini, R. (2011). Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 3(3), p.466. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3178961/
 Martelli, A., Testai, L., Colletti, A. and Cicero, A.F.G. (2020). Coenzyme Q10: Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases. Antioxidants, [online] 9(4). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222396/ [Accessed 1 Jul. 2020].
 SNAP Education Connection. (n.d.). Bananas. [online] Available at: https://snaped.fns.usda.gov/seasonal-produce-guide/bananas.
 Okon, U. and Utuk, I. (2016). Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats. Nigerian Medical Journal, 57(1), p.31. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27185976/
 Banihani, S.A. (2019). Testosterone in Males as Enhanced by Onion (Allium Cepa L.). Biomolecules, 9(2), p.75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30795630/
 Banihani, S.A. (2018). Ginger and Testosterone. Biomolecules, 8(4), p.119. https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/8/4/119
 medlineplus.gov. (n.d.). Aspartic acid: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. [online] Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002234.htm.
 fdc.nal.usda.gov. (n.d.). FoodData Central. [online] Available at: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/168389/nutrients [Accessed 1 Jun. 2021].
 Banihani, S.A. (2019). Mechanisms of honey on testosterone levels. Heliyon, 5(7), p.e02029. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612531/