Testosterone Zinc Magnesium

Written by Ben Bunting: BA, PGCert. (Sport & Exercise Nutrition) // British Army Physical Training Instructor // S&C Coach.


Quick bite

There is little research accross a wide demographic of looking at the effects of zinc, magnesium and testosterone levels.

The research available suggests that while there is some evidence to support that these minerals do improve testosterone levels in some populations, further research is needed to fully understand their effects.

Testosterone and Health

Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and androgen produced in males, playing an essential role in driving sexual desire, muscle development and growth, body hair thickening and thickening in males.

Testosterone may also influence psychiatric behavior as well as metabolic and immune system processes - with variable testosterone levels seemingly accounting for some differences between human traits or disease prevalence between men and women.

Testosterone levels have been associated with various health conditions, including diabetes and obesity. However, it remains unclear whether low testosterone is directly responsible for these issues or just an indicator of overall poor health.

Studies have demonstrated that low testosterone (hypogonadism) is linked with decreased quality of life, manifested as mood or sexual function changes and physical manifestations like swollen breasts (gynecomastia), decreased bone density or loss of energy.

While some randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy have resulted in improvements in health-related quality of life assessments, others have not due to differing tests and questionnaires used during these studies making generalization challenging.

Testosterone levels vary throughout the day and reach their peak between 8-11 AM, so taking a sample in the morning is most likely to provide accurate results.

However, some researchers have discovered that age and time of testing may also alter results; one study conducted on young men demonstrated significantly less total testosterone compared with older adults.

The Importance of Micronutrients

Micronutrients refers to vitamins and minerals our bodies require in smaller amounts than macronutrients.

Since our bodies cannot produce them themselves, they must come from food sources - vitamins as well as trace minerals (like magnesium potassium zinc etc).

Human bodies require various vitamins and minerals for optimal health, including folic acid, iron, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K and omega-3 fatty acids.

Deficiencies of these vitamins and minerals can have serious repercussions for health.

Symptoms vary depending on which nutrient is in short supply - while most individuals will be provided with enough micronutrients through eating healthily but some individuals may require supplementing with certain micronutrients depending on their eating pattern or risk factors.

Health experts agree that the best way to get vitamins and minerals is by eating a diverse diet rich in nutrient-dense whole foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fortified dairy products, beans, nuts, seeds, oils and lean meats.

It's generally best to get these essential nutrients through whole food rather than supplements; excess amounts can lead to health problems including cancer.

Micronutrient Impact on Testosterone

A healthy diet can help sustain or increase testosterone, and correcting any vitamin and mineral deficiencies that could be hindering its production can improve vitality, libido, and strength.

Eating nutrient-rich foods coupled with taking a multivitamin daily will be useful in optimizing hormone levels.

Zinc, Vitamin D and Omega-3 fatty acids have all been demonstrated to significantly boost testosterone.

Zinc is essential in producing testosterone and can be found in many foods including red meats, nuts, seeds, seafood, beans and eggs.

Vitamin D can be obtained via sunlight exposure, certain food items (fatty fish egg yolks mushrooms etc) as well as supplementation; its deficiency has been linked with reduced sperm count and thus testosterone production.

Omega-3 fatty acids play an integral role in hormone regulation and production, and can be found in many food sources such as fish, avocados, and nuts.

Furthermore, they offer anti-inflammatory benefits which have been linked with lower risks of heart disease, depression, and cancer.

Studies indicate that low fat diets may restrict testosterone production, so it's wise to include healthy fats such as olive oil, avocados and fatty fish into your daily diet in moderation.

Vitamin A has also been linked to maintaining an appropriate testosterone level; sweet potatoes and carrots contain this vitamin.

Magnesium plays an essential role in mitigating oxidative stress that negatively impacts hormones such as testosterone; it can be found in many leafy green vegetables legumes and whole grains as food sources. 

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ZMA Supplement Research

It has been reported that athletes have lower zinc and magnesium levels, possibly due to sweating more during training or insufficient intake of these minerals.

Supplementing with zinc and magnesium has also been shown to be beneficial for resistance-training athletes.

Theoretically zinc and magnesium supplements may improve anabolic hormone profiles, reduce catabolism and improve immune status.

Aas such, ZMA is an increasingly popular dietary supplement for its potential to enhance strength, reduce recovery time, promote fat loss and enhance sleep quality.

Composed of the minerals zinc, magnesium and (often) vitamin B6; each having different functions within our bodies.

Zinc is an essential trace mineral, playing an essential role in immune function, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism for energy and wound healing.

You can find zinc in foods like meat, poultry, fish, nuts seeds and leafy vegetables; optimal intake is key to good health but many don't get enough through diet alone - supplementation could be useful in increasing immune function if exercise becomes an integral part of daily life.

Magnesium is an essential nutrient and contributes to more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body, such as protein synthesis and bone health.

Furthermore, magnesium helps improve sleep quality, reduce bloating and fatigue symptoms and boosts immune functions.

Studies suggest magnesium's effects in combating cortisol, a catabolic hormone, while increasing growth hormone (GH).

Researchers found that ZMA supplementation in conjunction with off-season resistance training for football led to significant increases in testosterone, IGF-1 and muscle strength. 

The study conducted among NCAA football players who took ZMA every night for eight weeks of resistance training saw their testosterone increase by 30 per cent and 5 per cent more GH levels increase than before taking ZMA every night for resistance training.

However, an alternative study published in 2004 using 42 resistance-trained males who were using a supplement called Z-Mass PM showed no improvements in anabolic or catabolic profiles.

Yet, it must be mentioned that the 2004 study was conducted using only males who had been resistance training for at least 12 months and didn't take into account the potential higher nutrient turnover experienced by the football athletes.

Therefore, those who partake in multi-exercise events such as runners, swimmers, cyclists, soccer players, and rugby and tactical roles may benefit more from taking a ZMA supplement.


ZMA supplements contain zinc and magnesium, two essential minerals for our health. Zinc helps support immune function while magnesium promotes muscle health and sleep quality.

Both elements can become depleted during hard training in athletes' diets, leading to drops in testosterone and anabolic hormone levels; ZMA can help combat this effect and boost levels.

That said there are mixed results from studies, and the studies do not include a varied demographic. As a result, more research would be helpful to understand which population groups would benefit from ZMA supplementation.

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